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Meaning of "raqual" and "iliah illalah" in a 755 document from the Iberian Peninsula
2020.09.11 20:46 C8MixtoMeaning of "raqual" and "iliah illalah" in a 755 document from the Iberian Peninsula
Cheers! I was reading a book from 1822 that contained several historical documents about the city of Porto (link below). In page 22/23, there's a document written in Romance(?) from 755 and transcribed in 1229 about a Muslim ruler granting some safe passage and religious rights to the local Christian population. One passage, dating the document, reads:
Facta Carta era Christianorum DCCLV - (755) luna raqual.
There's also a translation to 1822 Portuguese in page 25, yet the passage "Luna raqual" remains. So I was wondering what could this mean. I thought maybe it could mean "first month", raqual being a corruption of Arabic ʾawwal, but I can't find source that would support that idea. The other reads:
Haec est carta de jusgo et consentioni de Abdelasin Abhrem Mahomet per iliah illalah dominator vilae portucale et gentis Nazarene [...]
Again, the translation left "iliah illalah" unchanged. A Google search for it return the Wikipedia page for Shahada, translating it as something as "There is no deity but God", but I can't see how that makes sense regarding the rest of the phrase, with Abdelasin Abhrem Mahomet supposedly being the local Muslim ruler. Could someone clear this out? I have no formal knowledges of Latin, Arabic, History or Linguistics, so sorry if I've made some mistakes in this question. The document is freely available here: http://purl.pt/6420/5/sc-1089-1-a_PDF/sc-1089-1-a_PDF_24-C-R0150/sc-1089-1-a_0000_rosto-30_t24-C-R0150.pdf
2020.09.08 17:07 intellectualgulfThe Miseducation of the American People
This is a theory that I will be working on until I figure out if it is accurate or not. Y'know, how the scientific process is supposed to be applied. The theory is this: The american people have been purposefully miseducated for generations and the bizarre backwards behavior we see today is a symptom of this miseducation. Whether or not the GOP is mainly responsible, whether this miseducation was politically aligned / inspired seems like a very important question given Nixon's presidency. Nixon is however just a symptom of a disease, and that disease is misinformation. The miseducation of the American people has been occurring for at least 100 years, but most likely has been ongoing since the founding of the country. Unfortunately freedom of speech protects liars, but that is the price we pay for democracy. Misinformation is a human disease, and is directly responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of American citizens in 2020 alone. Trump appointed Jared Kushner, an uneducated unqualified man, to lead a Covid Task force AND Jared Kushner showed why being uneducated is dangerous, since he decided Covid would magically hurt democrats more than republicans. I appear to be picking on Trump, but my theory is that conservatives of every color are to blame for this miseducation. It may be unfair to lay the blame entirely at the feet of conservative political parties, but we still can't have rational public debates about social policy without one of the miseducated screaming about communism. The average american has no idea what socialism is and only vaguely understands it to be a dangerous / bad system of governance that opposing superpowers have historically claimed to follow. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2019/10/07/in-their-own-words-behind-americans-views-of-socialism-and-capitalism/ The issue with this miseducation is it prevents reasonable logical debate. Of course any purely socialist society would fail, we are not a cooperative species. Any "true" form of government will fail when applied to humans because we are not rational or logical animals. We will inevitably smear everything in sight with feces and claim we have improved the world. Miseducation has led to the average american not understanding how governments function at a fundamental level. A government is a group of people who agree to a set of rules that direct acceptable or unacceptable behavior, who organize around these rules, and who contribute resources to the group fund to support the enforcement of those rules. Every government is socialist since the definition of socialism is group ownership, and democratic governments are group owned. All guaranteed services provided by a government are group owned, and anyone who claims the government should not provide guaranteed services should leave since that is exactly what our founding fathers wanted it to be. I'll repeat that last bit for clarity, the founding fathers intentionally created a group owned government to provide guaranteed services which include the postal service. If you consider yourself an "American" and believe that privatizing government services is a good idea, then you do not understand your government. This is reasonable given that many people were taught complete falsehoods before the internet came along, and many more falsehoods have been propagated by charlatans via the internet. The only reason we can even tell that a massive amount of miseducation occurred in the United States is because so many of those people are very loud. The internet acts as a permanent record, and despite active revisionism / ongoing miseducation it still provides a clear view of the miseducation. Each administration that chooses to use misinformation as a political weapon / tool ultimately damages the United States of America as they progressively weaken the citizens faith in truth. The american people at this point in time continue to act illogically despite access to the entirety of human knowledge at their fingertips. This is because the average American has been taught that Science and truth are not the same, and that "science" cannot be trusted to protect their interests. It does not matter that "their interests" are given to them by politicians who have shown an inability to think rationally or scientifically, since this is what they have been taught to accept. This is yet another symptom of the disease, as people who otherwise are not mentally deficient make completely irrational or illogical choices / behaviors, such as continuing to elect corrupt and incompetent leaders. The claims by Trump and other "modern" conservatives that the United States is or ever was intended to be a Christian nation is common. It really shouldn't be commonly held or believed since it is patently false, but it is another symptom of the disease of misinformation which is propagated in the United States through miseducation. Data Sources Statistics in the U.S. Department of Education: Highlights from the Past 120 Years https://nces.ed.gov/pubs93/93442.pdf US Department of Education website https://www2.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html History
The original Department of Education was created in 1867 to collect information on schools and teaching that would help the States establish effective school systems. While the agency's name and location within the Executive Branch have changed over the past 130 years, this early emphasis on getting information on what works in education to teachers and education policymakers continues down to the present day. The passage of the Second Morrill Act in 1890 gave the then-named Office of Education responsibility for administering support for the original system of land-grant colleges and universities. Vocational education became the next major area of Federal aid to schools, with the 1917 Smith-Hughes Act and the 1946 George-Barden Act focusing on agricultural, industrial, and home economics training for high school students. World War II led to a significant expansion of Federal support for education. The Lanham Act in 1941 and the Impact Aid laws of 1950 eased the burden on communities affected by the presence of military and other Federal installations by making payments to school districts. And in 1944, the "GI Bill" authorized postsecondary education assistance that would ultimately send nearly 8 million World War II veterans to college. The Cold War stimulated the first example of comprehensive Federal education legislation, when in 1958 Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik. To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union in scientific and technical fields, the NDEA included support for loans to college students, the improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools, graduate fellowships, foreign language and area studies, and vocational-technical training. The anti-poverty and civil rights laws of the 1960s and 1970s brought about a dramatic emergence of the Department's equal access mission. The passage of laws such as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prohibited discrimination based on race, sex, and disability, respectively made civil rights enforcement a fundamental and long-lasting focus of the Department of Education. In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act launched a comprehensive set of programs, including the Title I program of Federal aid to disadvantaged children to address the problems of poor urban and rural areas. And in that same year, the Higher Education Act authorized assistance for postsecondary education, including financial aid programs for needy college students. In 1980, Congress established the Department of Education as a Cabinet level agency. Today, ED operates programs that touch on every area and level of education. The Department's elementary and secondary programs annually serve nearly 18,200 school districts and over 50 million students attending roughly 98,000 public schools and 32,000 private schools. Department programs also provide grant, loan, and work-study assistance to more than 12 million postsecondary students.
When formulating this theory I was focused on education in the 1950s and later, but I am revising this theory as I read more. I think the best way to identify the miseducation will be to find writings that survived the shifts in belief. To suggest to one of Jefferson's contemporaries that he wanted religion involved with the United States government would have gotten you laughed out of the room. Jefferson was not above using the law to support his personal beliefs, but we have his letters with Madison where they congratulate one another on keeping religion out of the government [see comments]. I bring this up as it is a MAJOR point for conservatives despite being clearly historically wrong. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States#:~:text=Conservatism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20is%20a%20political%20and%20social,%2Dcommunism%2C%20pro%2Dindividualism%2C https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States#:~:text=Conservatism%20in%20the%20United%20States%20is%20a%20political%20and%20social,%2Dcommunism%2C%20pro%2Dindividualism%2C Anyone who ascribes to believes in made up history is one of the miseducated. 20200915 - "The white man's burden" In February 1899, British novelist and poet Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem entitled “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands.” I had hoped I would need to search further than this to find my evidence, as if all the evidence is laying about like this it is a wonder no one else stumbled upon it before. "The White Man's Burden" had a clear historical impact, and yet most people alive now would refuse to believe that their great great grandparent, great grandparent, or grandparent was assuredly raised with (and most likely promoted) Racist views. This poem influenced the future) US President Theodore Roosevelt and Global Policy as a result: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/ We see contemporary refutations by famous figures such as Mark Twain, that were clearly ignored in favor of the "White Man" which in the USA was quite literal. "Predestination" was the idea that White Christians were beloved by God, and that God had made the world for White Men to rule". This was such a common theme in those days that it was used to literally steal land from the natives. Really good evidence of how effective Christianity is as a moral spine to humanity in my thinking. Just look at President Jackson's Message to Congress "On Indian Removal", December 6, 1830; https://www.nps.gov/museum/tmc/MANZ/handouts/Andrew_Jackson_Annual_Message.pdf We must admit that not just some, but most of our forefather's were selfish and racist people who had been indoctrinated by their conservative peers and teachers. The reason I bring this poem up specifically is I found it in a Biology textbook. Which Biology textbook? Why only one of the most famous textbooks in history that no one remembers,: A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems (usually referred to as just Civic Biology) was a biologytextbook written by George William Hunter, published in 1914 http://www.gutenberg.org/files/39969/39969-h/39969-h.htm Excerpt from The Economic Value of Trees. Protection and Regulation of Water Supply. : "It was such a strange, tremendous story, that of the Greek Poseidonia, later the Roman Pæstum. Long ago those adventuring mariners from Greece had seized the fertile plain, which at that time was covered with forests of great oak and watered by two clear and shining rivers. They drove the Italian natives back into the distant hills, for the white man's burden even then included the taking of all the desirable things that were being wasted by incompetent natives, and they brought over colonists—whom the philosophers and moralists at home maligned, no doubt, in the same pleasant fashion of our own day. And the colonists cut down the oaks, and plowed the land, and built cities, and made harbors, and finally dusted their busy hands and busy souls of the grime of labor and wrought splendid temples in honor of the benign gods who had given them the possessions of the Italians and filled them with power and fatness. " Now one instance doesn't make a pattern, but that is clearly not a scientific phrase. Why is this Biology textbook, which was used to force schools to teach science, reinforcing a view that was known at the time to be wrong? Not only was this view known to be wrong, it had been known for at least 50 years. At this point we can just accept that Christianity was only used as a way to excuse horrendous treatment of "savages", and that the people alive at the time knew this was true. The supporters of predestination at the time most likely were as vehement in their correctness as the neo-nazis of now. So what is the picture I am painting? Why is this not in chronological order? I am going to show you that not only is there a constant theme of "denying reality" among conservatives in the United States, but that it was purposeful refutation of correct information (truth). Andrew Jackson did not consider the native population as human: "And is it supposed that the wandering savage has a stronger attachment to his home than the settled, civilized Christian? Is it more afflicting to him to leave the graves of his fathers than it is to our brothers and children? Rightly considered, the policy of the General Government toward the red man is not only liberal, but generous. He is unwilling to submit to the laws of the States and mingle with their population. To save him from this alternative, or perhaps utter annihilation, the General Government kindly offers him a new home, and proposes to pay the whole expense of his removal and settlement." I can say Jackson didn't consider "the red man" as human, because despite this claim that the "red man" would be relocated and all costs covered Jackson would end up authorizing the murder of many natives during his presidency. Just look at how Jackson promoted an incorrect view of the Native American people being "wandering savages" with no connection to the land. "Whatabout" arguments bring up questions of "ownership", inheritance of land among Native American Tribes, and wars among the Tribes just before the "settling" of the Americas. My counter to this is the same as always, according to your logic if I want your house I just need to prove you haven't owned it "very long". This argument is at its core insisting that the ownership of a landmass depends on how recently the government on that landmass changed leadership. The fact is that the native American people had been living on the continent without european intervention for at least 1,000 years: Just for example he Connestee people, believed to be ancestors of the Cherokee, occupied western North Carolina circa 200 to 600 CE https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee This means that the Cherokee have a stronger claim to England than the English according to the "recent ownership theory", since the people the English descended from didn't arrive in England until after 400 CE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Saxon_settlement_of_Britain Honestly if you or anyone you know believes the ridiculously common conservative argument, please point out to them that based on the concept of ownership being based on time spent in a region, the Native American people owned half the world before the English stood up their bastion of failing Rome in the United Kingdom. Not only that, but the Native American people had a rich history that quite literally was all but destroyed between the 16th and 18th centuries. Jesus H Christ, if you want to see even more proof that we have simply trained ourselves to be idiotic, look at this History Channel Page that supposedly tells the timeline of the Native American People: https://www.history.com/topics/native-american-history/native-american-timeline It starts in 1492! That is not a history of the native american people, that is a history of European interaction with the Native American People's. This is a perfect example of how our common knowledge and supposed history is just conservative garbage. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Native_Americans_in_the_United_States Looking at the actual Wikipedia page (look out for conservative Christian revisionism), we see that the people who populated the American continents lived there for millenia. "Western Christian Civilization" wasn't even a shitstain in homo sapiens diaper when the American continents were fully settled and replete with grand empires. Not only did Jackson purposefully mis-inform the American people about the selfishness and evil of the "Indian Removal Act", but he used similar misinformation tactics to disguise other political agendas: " Mexico, having for six years carried on against Texas a marauding war only, and that upon the most savage principles, inconsistant with all principles of civilised warfare, and against which all civilised nations which have acknowledged the Independence of Texas ought to unite, and by peaceful means, if it could, put it down, and if this could not be obtained peaceably, then all civillised and christian powers are bound to unite upon christian principle to put an end to this savage and inhuman war. The United States having been the first nation that acknowledged Texian Independence, are we not bound to be the first to boldly step forward to put an end to this savage maurading war. I think so. Texas harassed, and her means of war limitted presents herself to the united states to be annexed to, and protected by the United States. There being no embodied army marching against Texas for reconquest, great Britain trying to obtain the Liberation of the slaves in Texas for the avowed purpose of coercing the south and west into this measure by destroying the vallue of this property and opening a way for our slaves to run away to Texas, is [it] not time for the south and west to take the alarm, and as Texas has presented herself for voluntary annexation, which at once shuts the door against this impending evil, and secures Neworleans in case of a war with England, can it be, could it be, that any one could seriously suppose that the whole south and west would not unite upon this important subject, and with one voice cry out annexation. " "I am very feeble, but excited by the subject, mortified at Mr. V.B. letter and Col. Bentons, for their is no evidence of ever the time being more propitious than the present, the necessitous situation of Texas, the prospects of the encouragement posponement will give to Mexico, with the secrete aid of great Britain and the consequences, makes my tears flow with regret. Texas may feel herself insulted and neglected by the refusal of the U. States and make a treaty with great Britain ruinous to the south west and to the safety of the Union, when we will have to fight both great Britain and mexico—on such an event what curses must fall upon all who refused to receive Texas." It's almost like Andrew Jackson was a Racist, who while opposed / refuted by some of his contemporaries, the average American clearly supported Predestination. It is no wonder that with this amount misinformation use already present by the 7th President we see a President today who does nothing but lie. Since conservatives value Opinion over Truth we can no longer trust anything that they claim, and we shouldn't have been letting these views infect out people for this long to begin with.
Special Interest Groups Damaged our Government:
This should be a perfectly reasonable debate with no partisanship or issues of religion / emotion (/s). This is going to be a shit show, just be prepared. Academics have almost universally responded poorly to this hypothesis, that the American People have been Miseducated for Generations. It is quite possible that the misinformation campaigns which turned our nation into an "Idiocracy" were not exclusive to education centers. Searching through the NY Times you can find many examples of Christian special interest groups attacking politicians for failing to align with their goals: 1832 Wig Paper lauding the destruction of Irish Culture- Constitutional Whig. [volume], September 28, 1824 1841 Indiana State sentinel. [volume], October 19, 1841: 1841 anti-irish sentiment 1840 - Mr. Van Buren has shown he is in favor of Free Negroes and Slaves to swear in Court against WHITE MEN! (emphasis theirs) The Hawk-eye and Iowa patriot., September 10, 1840
point of research here, I wonder what the "average" conservative newspaper / politician had to say about this at the time. Oh wait. That's right, these fuckwits took a nation to war over their bullshit.
note here, if I continue to find writing challenging Conservative Christian views like this published on the front page of large newspapers then I must assume that media is not the soul source of the issue. A reasonable public debate shows that "educated men" were debating the same things were are debating now. That's right, you believe the same idiotic things as someone from the 1840s.
this was an actual textbook- " The second part treats the "Moral and Religious Condition" of slaves and free blacks, blaming their circumstances for their lack of virtue. Jones especially calls attention to their poverty and lack of education. He describes their ignorance of Christianity, their general lack of character, and their prevailing vices, noting that in the end, they are totally dependent on white men for the ability to overcome these limitations " 1857 - Illustrated school history of the United States and the adjacent parts of America
this is a history textbook, one of the first, and was widely distributed. here is the quote on the origin of native americans. Not only do we see a clear reference to teachings of the Christian faith (Adam and Eve) we also see obvious historical inaccuracies (Babel)
ORIGIN on THE AMERICAN INDIANS. Hence it seems, at ﬁrst glance, almost impossible that it should have been reached, in an age when ships Were small‘ and frail, when the mariner’s compass was unknown and the sailor dared not trust himself out of sight of land. This led men to suppose that the inhabitants of America did not descend from Adam and Eve, but from a race previously created. Such a theory’ is plainly contrary to the Bible record, nor is it needed to account for the settlement of America. .8. Later discoveries have brought to light a fact unknown to geographers three hundred years ago, that America wi- dens rapidly in the north, and there juts out into the ocean till it comes within thirty-six ‘miles of Asia. , As a current sets -towards the American shore, the passage thither can be readily made even in rude vessels. Boats may have been driven over by stress of weather, and the continent thus have been discovered without design. But there was a still‘ easier means of communication. In severe seasons, ,Behring’s Strait is frozen over. , ‘Many varieties of animals have passed on the ice from one continent to the other; and the ﬁrst occupants of America, led by curiosity, or driven by violence,- may have reached the new world in the same manner. 9. At what time this event took place, we are not informed. History makes no mention of it. It is probable that it occurred at an early date, not many centuries after the dispersion at Babel and the consequent emigration from the plain of Shi’nar.
There is little need of comment "on this clause‘‘.‘‘ No “man can Well doubt the propriety of placing a President of the" United States’ under the most solemn obligations to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution. It is "a suitable ‘pledge of his ﬁdelity and responsibility to his 'country', and creates upon his conscience a deep ‘sense duty, by an appeal at once, in the presence of God and man, to the most sacred and solemn sanctions Which can operate upon the human mind
this is more conservative Christian quackery, there has never been a requirement for God to support the US President or vice versa. This is one the most successful and absurd miseducations perpetrated on the American people. Christians are not good people just because they are Christian.
Oath. A solemn aﬂirmation or declaration, before a competent tribunal or oﬁieer, to tell the truth, appealing to God for the truth of what is asserted.
no oath of office has ever been required to be Christian, another misconception perpetuated by conservative Christians to prevent non christians from holding office
TO PARENTS AND TEACHERS. to be a good citizen of the United States one ought to be imbued with the spirit of Christianity, and to believe in and act upon the teachings of Jesus. He condemned self-seeking, covetousness, hypocrisy, class distinctions, envy, malice, undue and ignoble ambition
Old textbooks: SPELLING, GRAMMAR, READING, ARITHMETIC, GEOGRAPHY, AMERICAN HISTORY, CIVIL GOVERNMENT, PHYSIOLOGY, PENMANSHIP, ART, MUSIC—AS TAUGHT IN THE COMMON SCHOOLS FROM COLONIAL DAYS TO 1900. JOHN A. NIETZ EMERITUS PROFESSOR OF EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH PRESS
ATTITUDES REVEALED IN SUBJECT MATTER Since geography textbooks dealt extensively with people and customs, the opportunity was great for authors to reveal their attitudes regarding the various peoples and their ways of living. In many geographies, especially in the earlier ones, the content revealed that the attitudes of the authors were often biased. Religious Attitudes. The earliest geographies were written when our country was still dominantly Protestant and the academic leaders were either trained as ministers or at least deeply religious. J edidiah Morse and Elijah Parish were both Congregational ministers. Not even all Protestant groups were equally respected. For example, in the first American written geography, Morse in 1784 referred to the Presbyterians and Lutherans as “numerous and respectable.” Parish, in enumerating the religious groups, began with small letters the words Baptists, Methodists, Quakers, and Catholics, but began with capital letters Presbyterian, Congregationalists, and Lutherans. ‘ Many of the early books particularly contained unfavorable comments about other religions than Protestants. Morse in his 1790 edition referred to Roman Catholicism in Spain as “of most bigoted, superstitious, and tyrannical character.” Dwight (1806), Parish (1810), and Adams (1818) used the term “Pop- ery” in referring to Roman Catholicism. Davies (1805) claimed that the priests in Ireland ruled with “blind superstition and ignorance.” Many other early geographies contained similar statements. Later several geography textbooks were written by Catholic GEOGRAPHIES Q13 authors which were equally biased against Protestantism. Among these were texts by Pinnock (1853) and Sadlier (1880). The latter, in referring to religious conditions in Ireland, said: England abandoned the Catholic faith in the 16th century, and to this country belongs the ignoble distinction of having oppressed and persecuted the Irish nation with a barbarity unparalleled in the history of man’s inhumanity to man. Most Protestant authors referred to the Protestants in Euro- pean countries with respect. Parish (1810) said, “The Scotch clergy are men of learning and piety.” Woodbridge (1835) said, in referring to the Scots, “They are remarkable for knowledge and morality, produced by their numerous schools, and their at- tention to public worship.” In referring to non-Christian religions, likewise, uncompli- mentary statements were often made. A number of authors re- ferred to Mahomet as an “imposter.” Morse (1800) wrote: “In a word, the contagion spread over Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Persia; Mahomet, from a deceitful hypocrite, became the most powerful monarch in his time.” Warren in 1872 referred to Mohammed as a “false prophet.” Uncomplimentary statements were also made about the religions in Japan and India. Reform Attitudes. The teaching of religion and morality was really the chief aim of education in early American schools. This aim was even dominant. in geography textbooks. Thus many forms of behavior which the authors considered immoral were severely condemned. Alcohol. Morse (1790) believed “in proportion as the use of beer increases, in the same proportion will the use of spiritous liquors decrease. This will be a happy exchange.” Parish (1810) condemned the “numerous Taverns,” and “grogshops.” Several condemned the sale of liquors to Indians.
wow it is almost as though religion actually had very little do with with the founding of the United States except without Christian predestination the Native Americans may have survived in higher numbers
2020.09.07 09:00 ShigalyovChapter 3 (The Strangest Story in the World) - The Everlasting Man Part 1
This chapter continues Christ's journey. Chesterton highlights the distinct nature of Jesus: his divinity. He then focuses on Christ's main mission - to die. Both of these aspects set him apart from all the other philosophies and religions. Christ's divinity
For this is the very last character that commonly goes with mere megalomania; especially such steep and staggering megalomania as might be involved in that claim.
In essence, consider what we've seen so far in the last two chapters. About Christ's behaviour. Is that the behaviour of a megalomaniac or a lunatic?
"There is a sort of notion in the air everywhere that all the religions are equal because all the religious founders were rivals, that they are all fighting for the same starry crown. It is quite false. The claim to that crown, or anything like that crown, is really so rare as to be unique. Mahomet did not make it any more than Micah or Malachi. Confucius did not make it any more that Plato or Marcus Aurelius. Buddha never said he was Brahma. Zoroaster no more claimed to be Ormuz than to be Ahriman"
This is important and goes to the heart of any comparison between Christianity and others. All of the other philosophers or prophets were just that: philosophers or prophets. The philosophers would sometimes talk about God's nature. The prophets in turn would speak on behalf of God. This applies to every single one we've covered: Judaism, Islam, Buddha, Plato, Aristotle, etc. Not a single one of these prophets or philosophers claimed to be God. Right there you have a massive difference in kind between Christianity and the rest. As Chesterton notes, even if the Church is wrong in interpreting Christ's words this way, it is nonetheless a unique blunder which no other philosophy has ever made. To be fair, I think the very closest one could get to this are the Hindu "avatars" of the gods Vishnu, Krishna and others. In fact if I recall correctly Hindus think Jesus himself was such an avatar. But I do not know enough about these to comment more on this.
Normally speaking, the greater a man is, the less likely he is to make the very greatest claim. Outside the unique case we are considering, the only kind of man who ever does make that kind of claim is a very small man; a secretive or self-centered monomaniac. Nobody can imagine Aristotle claiming to be the father of gods and men, come down from the sky; though we might imagine some insane Roman Emperor like Caligula claiming it for him, or more probably for himself. Nobody can imagine Shakespeare talking as if he were literally divine; though we might imagine some crazy American crank finding it as a cryptogram in Shakespeare's works, or preferably in his own works.
Here Chesterton starts to give be explicit about an argument which C. S. Lewis developed further. It is quite obvious to us that people who do in fact claim to be God are either lunatics or absolute megalomaniacs. Importantly:
this is exactly where the argument becomes intensely interesting; because the argument proves too much. For nobody supposes that Jesus of Nazareth was that sort of person. No modern critic in his five wits thinks that the preacher of the Sermon on the Mount was a horrible half-witted imbecile that might be scrawling stars on the walls of a cell. No atheist or blasphemer believes that the author of the Parable of the Prodigal Son was a monster with one mad idea like a cyclops with one eye. Upon any possible historical criticism, he must be put higher in the scale of human beings than that. Yet by all analogy we have really to put him there or else in the highest place of all."
C. S. Lewis put it even better:
I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: "I'm ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don't accept His claim to be God." That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic — on a level with the man who says he is a poached egg — or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God: or else a madman or something worse. You can shut Him up for a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon; or you can fall at His feet and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come with any patronising nonsense about His being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to.
Christ's mission The second aspect that Chesterton focuses on is Christ's goal. What his ultimate intentions were.
"But there is another quality running through all his teachings which seems to me neglected in most modern talk about them as teachings; and that is the persistent suggestion that he has not really come to teach. ... At least it certainly meant a general plan or purpose in the mind, with which certain things did or did not fit in. And if we leave out that solitary strategic plan, we not only leave out the point of the story, but the story."
He had an aim. He did not just walk around teaching people. He did do that, but it was not his main focus. In the Gospels time and again you read about how his "face was set for Jerusalem". He prophecies his death and seems to have it in mind as his main goal.
"It is assuredly well to remember that he would quite certainly have been moved on by the police and almost certainly arrested by the police for having no visible means of subsistence."
Somewhat off topic. This reminds me of a song by Kris Kristofferson. It is worth a listen. Comparison with Apollonius of Tyana and others
"Apollonius of Tyana, who figured in some fashionable cults as a sort of ideal philosopher, is represented as rambling as far as the Ganges and Ethiopia, more or less talking all the time."
According to Wikipedia Apollonius lived around 15 to 100 AD and came from Anatolia (modern day Turkey). He was a contemporary of Jesus.
"Philostratus describes Apollonius as a wandering teacher of philosophy and miracle-worker who was mainly active in Greece and Asia Minor but also traveled to Italy, Spain, and North Africa, and even to Mesopotamia, India, and Ethiopia. In particular, he tells lengthy stories of Apollonius entering the city of Rome in disregard of emperor Nero’s ban on philosophers, and later on being summoned, as a defendant, to the court of Domitian, where he defied the emperor in blunt terms. He had allegedly been accused of conspiring against the emperor, performing human sacrifice, and predicting a plague by means of magic. Philostratus implies that upon his death, Apollonius of Tyana underwent heavenly assumption."
It seems he is often compared to Jesus by both modern sceptics (Bart Ehrman, Robert Price) and historical ones (Voltaire). The Wikipedia article interestingly counters this with reference to this very chapter by Chesterton. From encyclopedia.com
"His death is wrapped in mystery, although he is said to have lived to be nearly one hundred years of age. His disciples were quick to say that he had not died at all, but had been caught up to heaven. When he had vanished from the Earth, the inhabitants of his native Tyana built a temple in his honor, and statues were raised to him in various other temples"
Back to Chesterton:
"Socrates did indeed find the conversation interrupted by the incident of his execution. But it is the whole point and the whole particular merit, of the position of Socrates that death was only an interruption and an incident. We miss the real moral importance of the great philosopher if we miss that point; that he stares at the executioner with an innocent surprise, and almost an innocent annoyance, at finding anyone so unreasonable as to cut short a little conversation for the elucidation of truth. He is looking for truth and not looking for death. Death is but a stone in the road which can trip him up."
As mentioned in a previous chapter, Socrates was condemned to death by the Athenians. He was not even very bothered by it. But it interrupted a fruitful life of conversation with his friends and pupils.
"Buddha, on the other hand, did arrest attention by one gesture; it was the gesture of renunciation, and therefore in a sense of denial. But by one dramatic negation he passed into a world of negation that was not dramatic; which he would have been the first to insist was not dramatic. Here again we miss the particular moral importance of the great mystic if we do not see the distinction; that it was his whole point that he had done with drama, which consists of desire and struggle and generally of defeat and disappointment. He passes into peace and lives to instruct others how to pass into it."
Whereas Socrates was interrupted by death, Buddha's main thesis is a lack of climax. His aim was ultimately non-existence. If he had a climax it was at enlightenment, not death. He went on to teach others after obtaining his goal.
"He may be met as if straying in strange places, or stopped on the way for discussion or dispute; but his face is set towards the mountain city."
In contrast, Jesus' main aim was not teachings or miracles. It was the cross.
"I have compared the quest to the journey of Jason, but we must never forget that in a deeper sense it is rather to be compared to the journey of Ulysses. It was not only a romance of travel but a romance of return; and of the end of a usurpation. No healthy boy reading the story regards the rout of the Ithacan suitors as anything but a happy ending. "
In the Odyssey, Odysseus (or the latinized name Ulysseus) spent years trying to return from the Trojan Wars to his own kingdom of Ithaca. He had numerous obstacles alone the way. When he came home he found his house in disorder as tens of men basically had taken over the palace. There they kept trying to pressure Odysseus's wife into marrying one of them. Odysseus and his son slew them all.
"It is characteristic of the contrast perhaps that Apollonius was supposed to have lived to an almost miraculous old age. Jesus of Nazareth was less prudent in his miracles. When Jesus was brought before the judgement-seat of Pontius Pilate, he did not vanish. It was the crisis and the goal; it was the hour and the power of darkness. It was the supremely supernatural act, of all his miraculous life, that he did not vanish."
What more can be said? For Socrates death was an interruption. For Buddha it was not the main goal. Apollonius, when faced with possible death, vanished. Jesus in contrast, despite his similarities to them, did not vanish or simply acquiesce to it or ignore it. Death was the goal. If we affirm that he could do miracles, then that would have been the best time to perform one. But the real miracle is that he did not. The death of myth and philosophy and the end of the world The entire world in all its main aspects condemned him to death. The same forces that were present at his birth, were present at his execution.
"It is more within my powers, and here more immediately to my purpose, to point out that in that scene were symbolically gathered all the human forces that have been vaguely sketched in this story. As kings and philosophers and the popular element had been symbolically present at his birth, so they were more practically concerned in his death; and with that we come face to face with the essential fact to be realised."
Judgment of myth
"Standing between the pillars of his own judgement-seat, a Roman had washed his hands of the world."
Rome was that embodiment of civilization and myth. It triumphed over the demons of Carthage. But at this point, as mentioned at the end of Part 1, scepticism almost ruined it. Myth itself was not enough. It could not sustain itself. Judgment of religion
"There too were the priests of that pure and original truth that was behind all the mythologies like the sky behind the clouds. It was the most important truth in the world; and even that could not save the world."
The Jews in turn had the true religion. The true monotheism. But they also rejected him. Judgment of the people
"so it was with the element which was perhaps the best, or which Christ himself seems certainly to have felt as the best. The poor to whom he preached the good news, the common people who heard him gladly, the populace that had made so many popular heroes and demigods in the old pagan world, showed also the weaknesses that were dissolving the world."
Even the poor, that group excluded by most philosophies and religions, even they rejected him. All together
"The mob went along with the Sadducees and the Pharisees, the philosophers and the moralists. It went along with the imperial magistrates and the sacred priests, the scribes and the soldiers, that the one universal human spirit might suffer a universal condemnation; that there might be one deep, unanimous chorus of approval and harmony when Man was rejected of men."
And with that all of it came together. The philosophers, mythologists, priests, rulers, the poor, the rich, the powerful - all united in rejecting God. But by doing so they died with him:
"The mythologies and the philosophies were buried there, the gods and the heroes and the sages. In the great Roman phrase, they had lived. But as they could only live, so they could only die; and they were dead."
"On the third day the friends of Christ coming at daybreak to the place found the grave empty and the stone rolled away. In varying ways they realised the new wonder; but even they hardly realised that the world had died in the night. What they were looking at was the first day of a new creation, with a new heaven and a new earth; and in a semblance of the gardener God walked again in the garden, in the cool not of the evening but the dawn"
With Christ's death all of the previous corruptions died. All the myths, philosophies, and demons. It reminds me of baptism. How at the moment of redemption you die with Christ, putting off the old and embracing the new. I do not know if this is theologically sound, but the comparison between the two gardens and a "new creation" is very applicable. Christ rose on the Sunday. The first day of the week. Indeed in Spanish, Russian and other languages the word for Sunday is "Resurrection" or has some link with Christ (Domingo, Voskresenye). This is interesting for me because in a way Christ's resurrection is a new creation week. A new Day 1. The old things indeed have passed away. A new age has begun. Historicity This is not part of the chapter but I figured it would be worth including. Whether Jesus actually made the claim to be God is something interesting worth a few paragraphs. I can go so much more in depth on this, but these are a few themes or verses that come to mind at the moment. The Gospel of John said that Jesus is the Word and that the Word is God. The same Gospel makes the "Before Abraham was, I am" statement of the previous chapter. It also includes Thomas saying "My Lord and My God". In the Synoptics you have Jesus being questioned before Caiaphas. When asked whether he is the Messiah, Jesus said "I am" and "you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven." This is a reference to the Son of Man in Daniel 7 who came with the clouds of heaven and who was given all authority, glory and sovereign power and worshipped by all nations. Even more the theme of the "cloud rider" was taken from pagans by Jews and applied to Yahweh (in Isaiah I believe), which makes Jesus riding the clouds an additional blatant affirmation of his deity. Furthermore, only God can forgive sins, yet Jesus forgave sins (again, in his own name and not speaking on God's behalf). The Jews even wanted to stone him for this. He claimed to be Lord of the Sabbath. Who but God can amend covenant obligations? He commanded the waters multiple times, an act understood by the ancients to be divine in nature and which has callbacks to the Exodus (many ancient myths have the gods warring over chaotic waters in their establishment of order). He also compared himself to a son of an a field owner in a parable of his, implying his unique relationship to the Father. He is called the First and the Last, a title only given to God. I can go on and on by speaking about Old Testament prophecies, Pauline stories and others. For now this might just help. One more thing. He was worshipped from the very beginning. This disproves any possible change in Christian doctrine. Not only can the Gospels and epistles be dated to between 5 years and a few decades (40 years?) after the resurrection, but extra-biblical sources affirm this too. Tacitus, when writing on Jesus, mentions a "most mischievous superstition". Pliny the Younger in around 112 says that when Christians gathered they "sang an anthem to Christ as God". Lucian of Samosata, a second-century Greek satirist, further says that Christians "worship the crucified sage". On the historicity off the crucifixion itself I want to say one more thing. I plan to still do a short overview of the evidence for the Resurrection where I will include debates around Christ's historicity and death as well. I hope I get to that at some point. But for now just know that even the most radical sceptical scholars admit at least one point: Christ's death by crucifixion under Pilate as a fact of history. Whatever your views on his resurrection and Christ's ideology, his death (and existence) are historical. Just keep it in mind. For a few sources on Christ's divinity, look at these. They are all coincidentally made in response to Muslims. Muslims believe Jesus was merely a prophet, so Christ's divinity often come up in discussions. There are other sources as well but these three came to mind. William Lane Craig on the tenant parable IslamCritiqued on Shabir Ally's "Markian theory" David Wood on "Where does Jesus say 'I am God, worship me'". Read it here Chapter list
2020.08.15 18:43 IsraelNazirThe DHAMMAPADA - The Words of Buddha, the teaching of the Awakened - FREE BUDDHIST BOOK PART 1
Siddhartha Gautama DHAMMAPADA The Law of Virtue and its Path according toSiddhartha Gautama Préface and translation by Israël Nazir A MESSAGE FROM THE EDITOR Salam, Shalom, Peace The people of the Book or ahl al-Kitab in Arabic is a theological concept whose origin is found in the suras of the Koran. It is by this name that Muhammad, ﺻﺍﻌﺲ, the prophet of Islam, calls the Christian and Jewish communities that lived in the Arabian Peninsula in his time. He names them so because they have access to a Book, ie the Tanakh for the Jewish communities and the Gospels for the Christian communities. The interlocutors who listen to him on the market square in Mecca are Semites of Arabic language and tradition, who have no Book to refer to and whose existentialist beliefs are based on a polytheistic pantheon with low moral values. The inhabitants of Mecca see in these religious communities from abroad, an identity danger for their culture. This feeling even becomes more and more evident because more and more Arabs are converting to Christianity. Mahomet, ﺻﺍﻌﺲ, himself received by his adoptive uncle a teaching to the Eastern Christians in Syriac. He is a caravaner who become significant. He is in his forties and is well educated in the Jewish Tanakh. He presents himself to them as a messenger who came to communicate to them in Arabic, this knowledge so precious that the people of the Book have and to which they do not have access. Does he not say in essence this? “Each people of this earth received from God a messenger who came to teach them the Truth. Those who listened to it, received a book and great wisdom, those who refused, ended up forgotten and found its vestiges in Syria and Egypt ... " The editions ahl al-Kitab, claim this origin and aim to continue the teaching of the Book to the inhabitants of Earth. The literary and theological definition of our Book is limited to the Dhammapada of Siddhartha Gautama, to the Proverbs of Solomon, to the Gospels of Thomas, Marc, Matthew, Luke and John, to the Tao Te King of Lao-Tzu, to the Analects of Confucius, to the Bhagavad -Gita of Krishna and the Koran of Muhammad, ﺻﺍﻌﺲ. Although the theological identity of the people of the Book applied primarily to the Jewish and Christian communities who lived nearby in the Arabian Peninsula. The term later included religious communities living in neighboring countries. Thus the Hindu and Buddhist communities who lived beyond the sea in India and the Zoroastorian communities who lived beyond the desert in Persia were also recognized as ahl al-Kitab. This is why, the vision which animates us is not that of melting all the religions in a single mold, nor that of mixing all the traditions in an empty syncretism. In reality, we believe that when we study the Book, we realize that religions all speak of universal values that transcend beliefs in identity and these values speak of: Peace, Virtue, Love, Harmony, Wisdom, Freedom and Universality. Consequently, one cannot, intellectually speaking, believe that these values are at the origin of all the wars and massacre of this world. If not. If that is the case, then: What is Good? What is the Best? What is the Perfect? We believe that each religious tradition is rich in unique lessons and that it carries within it, through its worship and culture, a beauty that cannot be equaled. We want to define ourselves as a stone sculptor who would leave aside his tools and who would be content only to polish the surface of the stone. Polish this stone and the 6 others: “These 7 stones which conceal the truth within oneself and which form a whole of a greater truth. A more coherent building with greater cohesion. " Our role is simple, it mainly consists in allowing the exchange of knowledge between believers of different faiths and traditions, we wish to do it in a theologically acceptable framework and we wish to do it in a format easy to understand, in the greatest number of possible languages. We believe that when we study the Book. We open up to the cultures of this world. When we understand the cultures of this world, we can accept them. When one has accepted the traditions of this world he obtains great Wisdom. In this Book which is at the foundation of all modern civilizations we have found a deep serenity: the Peace with oneself, the Peace with others. In this Book, we also found the answers to the existential debate which animates the man since his appearance. A debate specific to each and which will animate it throughout its life. Who are we? Who is God? Where are we going? Where do we come from? What is Good? What is Evil? Why choose Good over Evil? How to understand men? What motivates them? How to anticipate their actions? In 2000 years man has changed little, yet humanity has evolved towards the best. Is it not because man has asked himself the essential questions from the start that Humanity has evolved towards the best? Why does she ask herself these questions? It is because originally, everyone was asking the question, that people appeared to answer it ... In the teaching of these 7 ancestral wise men, messengers of the Truth, you will undoubtedly find the best advice and the best answers to your questions. We are the people of the Book. Ahl al-Kitab PREFACE The Dhammapada is the collection of the most beautiful words of wisdom pronounced by the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama during his life. Collected by his many Bhikku disciples, these words were then transmitted orally as part of the Buddhist teaching of the Sangha communities. Proverbs? Aphorisms or poetry? Recited, sung or prayed? Memorized, taught or practiced? This collection of 423 verses constitutes in 26 chapters, the teaching of the awakened one: a teaching which it is necessary to practice on his behavior and which leads to Nirvana. For the writing of this book, we used the French version available from Les éditions Albin Michel and the English version available on the website www.tipitaka.net. For the translation of this book, we have tried to make the text intelligible and easy to understand for its listeners. Knowing its nature to be recited, we have also endeavored to restore its dynamics, its rhythm and its rhymes. The translator of this book is Israel Nazir. This book is published in the public domain. CONTEXT The Dhammapada is with the Sermons of the Buddha, the oldest written Buddhist text found by modern archaeologists and historians. The oldest examples, written in Pali or Sanskrit, date from the 1st century AD. According to the oral transmission, the author of these texts is Siddhartha Gautama. A man that Buddhists define as remarkable and "well-behaved" who would have lived between the IVth and Vieme century BC in the territories of North East India, Nepal. Siddhartha Gautama enjoyed a happy birth in the Hindu family of the Shakya clan chief. He is the prince and the year of his 29 years, he decides to leave office and lead a life made of deprivation and renunciation with a community of ascetics. The one who was later called the Sage of the Shakyas: "the Shakyamuni" undertook a life of asceticism for 6 years and devoted himself to these meditative and austere practices. One memorable day, he became aware, after various meetings, of the suffering of this world and that afternoon, while he was sitting in meditation at the foot of a ficus tree. He made a vow not to move from this place until he had reached the ultimate truth. The Buddhists say that during that first night and the long weeks that followed. Mara, afraid that he would get such a power, sent hordes of demons towards him who tempted him, assailed him with doubts and seized him with fear. It was at this moment that the awakened Siddhartha Gautama succeeded in raising his spirit and reaching what Buddhists call enlightenment: "The Bohdi". A perfect and transcendent knowledge which leads to self-conquest and ultimate liberation. A truth which resides in the term of Dhamma, a polymorphic term which includes the senses of virtue, natural law, truth, practice, and teaching. Understanding this knowledge, the young man who was celebrating his 35th birthyear began to teach his message. He gathered around him a group of 5 ascetic disciples and one day he began to speak to them. He began to explain to them what he had understood. This is what is called the first sermon: "The setting in motion of the wheel of the Law". In this sermon, he developed the founding Buddhist concepts: of the four noble truths, of suffering (Doukkha), of the state of dissatisfaction and of the Noble eightfold path, this path with 8 steps which leads to the extinction of suffering. Recognized by his disciples as the instructor of universal knowledge, the peaceful and vigilant Buddha continued to deepen his teaching and subsequently defined the following concepts: The Anatman (without-self, without-ego, without-essence, without -Atman), impermanence and permanent dissatisfaction with all things, renunciation and thirst for desire, the exercise of meditation and personal development. During the long period which followed Siddhartha Gautama prophesied his message, he traveled in the gangetic plain of central India and he taught his doctrine and practice to a multitude of people, from the noble to the street sweeper, from the merchants to the beggars, from Hindu priests to Jainist priests. Before the end of his life, he founded the Sangha community, ie a community of men and women who decided to live according to Buddhist concepts, to perpetuate the oral teaching of the Buddha and to apply his practice on their lives. They promised to repeat it through the ages and through future lives. They promised to follow this path of virtue and to set in motion the wheel of the Law. It was during the eighty-first year of his life when he was traveling painfully towards the locality of Kusinâgar, that he asked his disciples to put his bed between two trees. The man who was sick of food poisoning lay down in the governor’s park. He asked his disciples to go get him water. Some disciples understood the moment and began to cry. They called then this last ascetic who had asked to see him and who had one last question to ask him: "Renouncing Gautama!" I have met several great renouncers in my life and each of them claims to be an Enlightened Brahmin. How do you know what's true? Are their teachings correct? " The Well Gone, listened to him and answered him by teaching him the path of Enlightenment. This path with 8 steps which leads to the certainty of what is right. Because if you observe a sage and you notice that he has a right word, a right action and a right livelihood then we know that this person has set out. If we continue to observe and notice that this person also makes right efforts, that he pays a right attention to all things and that he concentrates precisely on what he is doing, then we say that this person is in the upper current. Finally, when sometimes we meet a being who has, in addition, a right understanding and a right discernment, then we know with certainty that this person has accomplished the Noble Eightfold Path and that he deserves to be called an Awakened Brahmin. The ascetic silently listened to the Awakened, developed his demonstration, he nodded eight times, having understood with a right discernment that he had heard the answer to his question: The Truth. He recognized in Siddhartha Gautama an Enlightened Brahmin and asked to join the Sangha community. From then on this old man lying between two trees in the park of Governor Mallá, who is suffering from food poisoning, who has served the community until the last moments of his life, turned to his disciples and before to go out, said: “All that exists will one day be destroyed. Never forget to strive for the development of virtue, focus and wisdom.” Éditions 2020 Ahl al-Kitab Tous droits réservés ISBN: 9798675640560 www.ahl-al-kitab.com SOMMAIRE Chapter 1 : Twin verses 17 Chapitre 2 : verses on Vigilance 23 Chapitre 3 : verses on the Heart 27 Chapitre 4 : verses on the Flowers 30 Chapitre 5 : verses on the Fools 34 Chapitre 6 : verses on the Sages 38 Chapitre 7 : verses on the Liberated man 41 Chapitre 8 : verses on the Thousands 45 Chapitre 9 : verses on Evil 49 Chapitre 10 : verses on the Punishment 52 Chapitre 11 : verses on Old Age 58 Chapitre 12 : verses on the Self 61 Chapitre 13 : verses on the World 63 Chapitre 14 : verses on the Buddha 67 Chapitre 15 : verses on Happiness 71 Chapitre 16 : verses on Affections 75 Chapitre 17 : verses on Anger 78 Chapitre 18 : verses on Impurities 82 Chapitre 19 : verses on the Righteous man 87 Chapitre 20 : verses on the Path 91 Chapitre 21 : Various verses 96 Chapitre 22 : verses on unhappy states 100 Chapitre 23 : verses on the Elephant 105 Chapitre 24 : verses on Craving 109 Chapitre 25 - verses on the Bhikkhu 116 Chapitre 26 - versets on the Brahman 123 CHAPTER 1: TWIN VERSES Verse 1 The mind presupposes conditions, the mind is its chief and the conditions are shaped by the mind. If someone speaks or acts with an unpure spirit, then pain follows him as the wagon follows in the footsteps of the ox. Verse 2 The mind presupposes conditions, the mind is its chief and the conditions are shaped by the mind. If someone with a saintly spirit speaks or acts, then happiness will follow him like his shadow. Verse 3 They think: "He insulted me, he mistreated me, he cheated on me, he stole from me". The hatred of those who cherish such thoughts cannot be appeased. Verse 4 They think: "He insulted me, he mistreated me, he cheated on me, he stole from me". The hatred of those who have no such thoughts is appeased. Verse 5 Hatred has never extinguished the hatreds of this world. By love alone, hatred is extinguished. This is an old law. Verse 6 The others do not understand that because of this we perish, those who have understood this, have their quarrels appeased. Verse 7 He who delights in pleasure, without control or measure, immoderate in food, lazy, inert, this one in truth, Mara will overturn him as the wind overturns the weak tree. Verse 8 One who contemplates the unpleasant, with well-controlled senses, moderate in food and with serenity and rectitude. Mara will not be able to overturn it like the wind could not overturn a mountain. Verse 9 Anyone who is devoid of self-control, who is devoid of the sense of self, would he wear the yellow robe that he would not be worthy of it. Verse 10 One who has spit out all his purulences, who is well established in moral rules, provided with self-control and essentiality, this one is truly worthy of the yellow robe. Verse 11 In what has no meaning, he sees meaning, in what has meaning, he sees no interest. Whoever remains in the field of misconceptions, will never get to the point. Verse 12 What is essential, he knows as essential, what is without essence, he knows as without essence. Whoever stays in the field of right ideas gets to the point. Verse 13 Just as rain enters a house with a thatched roof, so desire enters an untrained heart. Verse 14 Just as rain cannot enter a thatched house. Desire will not enter a well-trained heart. Verse 15 He grieves in this life, he will grieve after this life, in all the worlds, the one who does evil is afflicted. He is afflicted and will suffer, carried by his impure actions. Verse 16 He rejoices in this life, he will rejoice after this life, in all the worlds the good doer will be happy. He rejoices, he rejoices extremely, carried by his pure actions. Verse 17 He laments in this life, he will mourn after this life, in all the worlds the one who does evil laments. "I did wrong" so he laments, suffering he goes to unhappy states. Verse 18 He is happy in this life and he will be happy after this life, in all the worlds the good doer will be happy. "I did good" he rejoices and he is joyous carried towards the happy states. Verse 19 Although he recites sacred texts a lot, he does not act in accordance with what he has studied; this inattentive man is like the guardian of one flock watching over another's flock; he is far from the beatitudes of the ascetic. Verse 20 Although he rarely recites sacred texts, he nevertheless acts in accordance with the Dhammapada, he has rid himself of sensual pleasure, hatred and ignorance, knowing the truth, he has a completely free heart. It is by being not attached to anything from this world and by being not attached to anything after this life that he attains the beatitudes of the ascetic. CHAPTER 2 - VERSES ON VIGILANCE Verse 21 Vigilance is the path to the undead, neglectness is the path to death. The vigilant will not die. The negligent person lives as if he were already dead. Verse 22 Meditating on this, the sage is vigilant, he rejoices in vigilance, delights in the field of Aryas. Verse 23 The wise men who are constantly meditating, the wise men who are constantly striving, will gain access when they have freed themselves from their ties to the incomparable Nirvana. Verse 24 In stages increases the glory of one who is energetic, attentive to his actions, pure and just, who controls himself and who leads an upright and vigilant life. Verse 25 It is through effort, ardor, discipline and self-control that the sage will make himself an unsinkable island of himself. Verse 26 The ignorant and the foolish take pleasure in neglect, but the sage protects vigilance as the greatest treasure. Verse 27 Do not like vices, do not frequent sensual pleasures. He who is ardent and meditative obtains abundant happiness. Verse 28 When the wise man frees himself from his bonds with the help of the saintly spirit, this sage will be without grief going up to the palace of transcendent knowledge and walking his view over the ignorants who suffer, as a mountain dweller walks his view over the people of the plain. Verse 29 Vigilant among the negligent, awake among the sleepy, the wise man advances like a fast horse. He leaves behind the old horse. Verse 30 By ardor, Sakka became the chief of the Devas. Hard work is always praised, vice is always despised. Verse 31 The Bhikkhou who delights in ardor and who looks at the neglect with fear, advances like fire. It burns all ties, big and small. Verse 32 The Bhikkhou who delights in ardor and who considers neglect with fear is not exposed to falling, he is close to Nirvana. https://preview.redd.it/qr65oogb37h51.png?width=335&format=png&auto=webp&s=efed73d153b5d6828a520ce36cba8fc7babc31e8
2020.05.22 21:26 phdementedThe Origin of the Monsters in Dungeons and Dragons - Part 3
This weeks post was going to be for the Letter D, but it's too large for a single post. Instead, today will just be Devils and Demons! Part 1: Letters A + B Part 2: Letter C This is a really interesting block, with a lot of fascinating roots, ranging from ancient times to modern creations. What starts to appear when you look at the overall scope of monsters, is that they tend to fall into one of the following buckets:
Devils + Demons: These creatures test to be spirits or creatures from another place, that seek to cause harm. They may go by many names, but can generally put into the bucket of "evil creature or evil spirit".
Fey/Sylvan: They are the fairy creatures. Elves, Pixies, Sprites, Fairies, Brownies, Hobgoblins, Kobolds, and the like. Lesser spirits that cause mischief (though they can be dangerous), these are generally of northern European mythology, though they are often grouped with Sylvan creatures such as centaur, satyrs, and other 'nature' spirits like dryads and sylphs of Greek mythology.
Chimeras: Another very common bucket, Chimeras are combinations of different creatures. This can be a mix of man and beast (Sphynx, Centaur, Merman) or a mix of various beasts (Griffin, Dragon, Kirin)
Undead: Tales of the undead often cross with the "evil spirits" of the devil/demon bucket, but these tend to be the spirits of the once living, vs. spirits of non-human origin.
Literature Based: Many monsters are based on creatures in literature, not folklore or mythology.
Invented: Creatures simply made up for D&D
"Word of Mouth" / "Telephone Game": These creatures are real creatures, that through indirect description became mystical creatures of mythology. Creatures such as the Behemoth (Hippopotomus), Catoblepas (Wildebeast), Baku (Tapir) were all real animals, but as the description traveled it became less and less acurate, until the creature being described was it's own "thing" and took on a life of its own.
While these don't cover all the creatures, it's an interesting observation of where creatures come from and made their way to D&D. With that, we can get to the next batch of creatures...
Origins of Monsters - D
Daemon Etymology: Greek daimon (“god, power, fate”), from PIE *daimon (“provider, divider of fortune”), possibly from *da- (“to divide, to allot”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: In Greek mythology, daemons are benevolent spirits. They were broken into two groups; agathodaemon (noble spirit, from agathos (“good/brave”)) and kakodaímōn (from kakós (“bad/evil”)). Generally, they were similar to Arabic Jinn and Roman genius. The D&D daemons are closer to the judeo-christian demons of the middle ages, likely inspired by Dante Allegri and other period art. The following Daemons appeared in AD&D https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daemon_(classical_mythology)) _____________________________________________________________ Arcanadaemon (Arcanaloth) Etymology: Likely from aracana, from the Latin arcanum (“mystery, secret”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown Charon Etymology: A poetic shortening of the Greek charopōs (“of keen gaze”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Charon was the ferryman of Hades in Greek mythology, who brought the spirits of the dead across the river Styx and Archeron (which divided the world of the living and the dead). The monster entry makes it clear this is a direct conversion of the Greek myth. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charon Charonadaemon Etymology: Same as Charon First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Invented creature that assists Charon Derghodaemon Etymology: Possibly from Old Irish derg (“red/crimson”), from PIE derg- (“to dim, darken”). The same root as the English word dark. First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown Hydrodaemon Etymology: From the Greek hydro (water) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown, likely called hydrodaemon based on it’s amphibian appearance. Mezzodaemon (Mezzoloth) Etymology: Italian mezzo (“half”) + Greek daemon (“spirit”) First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981) Origin: Uncertain; name may be because they inhabit the middle layers of the lower planes along with Nycadaemons. Nycadaemon (Nycaloth) Etymology: Possibly from Greek nicto (“night”) First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981) Origin: Uncertain Oinodaemon (Anthraxus) Etymology: From Greek anthraks (“an infectious disease of herbivores”). Root of Oinodaemon is uncertain; oînos is Greek for wine, but a connection to the monster is unclear. First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown, but anthrax is a disease common in sheep and cattle. The daemon can cause a powerful disease, and is in charge of various other daemons with disease-based names (Bubonis, Cholerix, Typhus, and Diptherius). Piscodaemon Etymology: Likely from picine (“relating to fish”), from the Latin piscis (“fish”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown, but the daemon is a mix of some ocean creatures. Ultrodaemon (Ultraloth) Etymology: Possibly from the latin ultro (“afar, beyond”). First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown, but the design of the creature appears similar to the classic “grey alien”, which may fit with the name (from far beyond / outer space) Yagnodaemon (Yagnoloth) Etymology: Uncertain; in Hinduism, yajna refers to a ritual sacrifice to the Devas, but there is not a clear connection. First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown (though the art is very reminiscent of the Skrulls or The Abomination from Marvel Comics) _____________________________________________________________ Demons Etymology: English demon (“evil spirit, servant of the devil”), from Latin daemōn (“familiar spirit, guardian spirit”), from Greek daímōn (“protective spirit”) First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Demon refers to different creatures, depending on the time period. The modern usage of the word refers to evil spirits and servants of hell. In Roman and Greek times, a demon was a protective or guardian spirit, that might inhabit a particular location (such as a house spirit) or to a person’s inner spirit (compare to Latin genius). When the region was converted to Christianity, the term was changed to mean an evil spirit. The D&D demons are primarily based on Judeo-Christian lore and mythology of the middle ages. Many pre-Christian gods were called demons as they were considered false-idols. Specific demons in D&D are included below: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demon _____________________________________________________________ Alu-Demon First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: In Akkadian/Sumerian mythology, Alû is a vengeful spirit. It is a demon with no mouth, ears, or lips, that roams the night and terrifies people as they sleep. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al%C3%BB Babau First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: The babau (or baubau) is a bogeyman like creature from the Mediterranean. Like the bogeyman, it was used as a threat against children who misbehaved. Reaches from Italy to Egypt (where it is called al-Bu'bu) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogeyman#Babau Balor Etymology: Irish, from Celtic boleros (“The Flashing One”) First Appearance: First appeared (as a Balrog) in the fantasy supplement for Chainmail (1971), first appeared in D&D (as a Balrog) in the original D&D set (1974), and later in the Monster Manual (1977) as a Balor. Origin: Name of an Irish giant (fomorian). Originally appeared as a Balrog, a powerful demon-like creature of shadow and fire from J.R.R. Tolkien’s Fellowship of the Ring (1954). Chainmail and the original D&D set included many direct lifts from Tolkein (Hobbits, Ents, Orcs, Balrog, etc.) however many names were eventually changed due to legal reasons. The Balrog was renamed the Balor, which is the name of the leader of the Fomorians, a race of monstrous giants that were opponents of the first mythological settlers of Ireland (the Tuath Dé Danann). Balor was a powerful demonic giant, who killed the king of the Tuath Dé, but was slain in turn by his grandson Lugh. The appearance of the Balor is clearly based on the Balrog, even including the Balrog’s sword and many-tailed whip.
“It came to the edge of the fire and the light faded as if a cloud had bent over it. Then with a rush it leaped across the fissure. The flames roared up to greet it, and wreathed about it; and a black smoke swirled in the air. Its streaming mane kindled, and blazed behind it. In its right hand was a blade like a stabbing tongue of fire; in its left it held a whip of many thongs.” J.R.R. Tolkein, The Fellowship of the Ring, 1954
Bar-Lgura First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Listed in Lewis Spence’s An Encyclopedia of Occultism (1920) as “Bar-Lgura : (Semitic demon ) : Sits on the roofs of houses and leaps on the inhabitants. People so afflicted are called d'baregara.”, though it is unclear what his source for this is. Demon, Baphomet Etymology: Medieval Latin baphometh, from Occitan bafometz. A corruption of Mahomet, the Latinisation of Mohammad in the 11th century by crusaders.. First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: A likely invented pagan deity/idol created by Christian folklore, from a combination of various older gods. Appeared in the 14th century as a pagan idol during the inquisition of the Knights Templar. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baphomet Cambion Etymology: Possibly from the Italian cambio (“exchange, change”) from the Latin cambio (“exchange, barter”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: In medieval mythology, a cambion is a half-human offspring of a demon and a human. Caliban (from Shakespeare’s The Tempest) was a cambion. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cambion Chasme Etymology: Possibly from the Greek chasme (“Chasm/Abyss”) or the Turkish Chesme (“a water spirit”) First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown Demogorgon Etymology: Possibly from the Greek daemon (“spirit”) + gorgos (“terrible”). Alternately, a misread of the Greek demiurge (“craftsman”, referring to the creator of the universe), and accusative form of which is dēmiourgón. A name attributed to a pagan god or demon, dating to the 4th century. First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Possible a grammatical error in a translation is the source of the name. The oldest mention of the name is in the commentary of Statius’s Thebaid, made in the 4th century by Lactantius Placidus. In one manuscript, the author says of Statius, Dicit deum Demogorgona summum, cuius scire nomen non licet ("He is speaking of the Demogorgon, the supreme god, whose name it is not permitted to know"). The word took on it’s own life, and by the middle ages, Demogorgon was considered an ancient god, and is referred to in texts as demon, and became incorporated into Christian mythology as a demon of hell. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demogorgon
“Or Spirit of the nethermost Abyss Might in that noise reside, of whom to ask Which way the neerest coast of darkness lyes Bordering on light; when strait behold the Throne Of Chaos, and his dark Pavilion spread Wide on the wasteful Deep; with him Enthron'd Sat Sable-vested Night, eldest of things, The Consort of his Reign; and by them stood Orcus and Ades, and the dreaded name Of Demogorgon; Rumor next and Chance, And Tumult and Confusion all imbroild, And Discord with a thousand various mouths.” -John Milton, Paradise Lost, 1667
Dretch Etymology: From Middle English dretchen, from Old English dreccan (“to vex/torment/oppress”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown Fraz-Urb’luu Etymology: Unknown First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983). Also appeared in Gary Gygax’s Gord novels Origin: Based on a demon from Gygax’s Castle Greyhawk campaign. Glabrezu Etymology: Unknown First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Created by Gary Gygax Graz’zt Etymology: Unknown First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983). Also appeared in Gary Gygax’s Gord novels Origin: Possibly based on a demon from Gygax’s Castle Greyhawk campaign. Goristro Etymology: Likely a play on gore (“to pierce with a horn”) First Appearance: First appeared in Planes of Chaos (1994), a 2nd Edition AD&D Planescape book. Origin: Unknown, name likely based on its having bull-like horns Hezrou Etymology: Unknown First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Created by Gary Gygax Juiblex Etymology: Unknown First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Invented by Gary Gygax Kostchtchie Etymology: Russian First Appearance: First appeared in the tournament version of the S4 - The Lost Caverns of Tsojcanth (1976), later in Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Russian folklore; Koschei is an antagonist in various Russian stories. He hides his sole inside nested objects to protect it, preventing him from being killed. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koschei Lolth First Appearance: First appeared in D1-2 Descent into the Depths of the Earth (1978), later Fiend Folio (1981) Origin: Created by Gary Gygax Manes Etymology: From Latin manes (“spirit of the dead”) First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: In roman mythology, manes are the souls of the dead, similar to Lates and Lemures. Considered deities of the underworld, Roman graves often included an inscription D.M. (diis manibus, “for the ghost-gods”), or “for the manes”. Manes were offered blood sacrifices, and possibly were honored at gladiatorial games. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manes
“Apuleius "says, indeed, that the souls of men are demons, and that men become Lares if they are good, Lemures or Larvae if they are bad, and Manes if it is uncertain whether they deserve well or ill... He also states that the blessed are called in Greek εὐδαίμονες [eudaimones], because they are good souls, that is to say, good demons, confirming his opinion that the souls of men are demons.” -Augustine of Hippo, City of God, 5th Century
Marilith Etymology: Possibly a portmanteau of Mara (a Buddhist demon) and Lilith (a Mesopotamian demoness). First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Appearance evokes images of Hindu and Buddhist demons, with multiple arms and animal features. For example, the battle between Sinbad and Kali (Golden Voyage of Sinbad, 1974) included a 6-arm sword wielded creature. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ROssbvtE41U Nabassu First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown Nalfeshnee Etymology: Unknown First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Created by Gary Gygax Orcus Etymology: From the roman god Orcus, from the Greek god Horkos (orkos, “Oath”) First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Orcus was a Roman god of the underworld and punisher of broken oaths. The name was also used as a general term for the underworld (similar to Hades). Being a god of the underworld, he was conflated with demons and hell in Christian lore, and orco became used as a name for any man-eating monster.. It is possible that the French word ogre comes from orco. The name was also used by J.R.R. Tolkein for the race of Orcs. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orcus Pazuzu Etymology: Akkadian 𒀭𒅆𒊒𒍪𒍪 pà.zu.zu First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Assyrian/Babylonian, Pazuzu (or Fazuzu/Pazuza) was the king of demons of the wind, son of the god Hanbi. Pazuzu represented the southwestern wind, and was the bearer of storms and drought. The main antagonist of the film The Exorcist was identified as the demon Pazuzu. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pazuzu Rutterkin Etymology: Unknown First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Taken from the name of the familiar (the cat) of Joan Flower, one of the witches of Belvoir. The witches of Belvoir were three women in England accused of witchcraft in 1619. http://www.thebookofdays.com/months/march/11.htm Succubus Etymology: From Latin succuba (“strumpet”), from succubare (“to lie under”) from sub (“under”) + cubara (“to lie down”). First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977) Origin: A demon or spirit from the Middle Ages, that would seduce men. The male incarnate was called an incubus. Vrock Etymology: From Swedish vråk (“vulture”) First Appearance: First appeared in the original D&D Eldritch Wizardry Supplement (1976) by Dave Arneson, later in the Monster Manual (1977) Yeenoghu First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Created by Gary Gygax Yochlol (Handmaiden of Lolth) First Appearance: First appeared in the module Q1 – Queen of the Demonweb Pits (Sutherland/Gygax), later in Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown inspiration _____________________________________________________________ Devils Etymology: From Old English dēofol, from Ancient Greek diabolos (“accuser, slanderer”) from dia (“across”) + bállō (“throw”) First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: A mix of various Judeo-Christian demons. In Christian mythology, the Devil is used as another name for the Judeo-Christian Satan (from Hebrew satán, “Opponent”), though it can slo be used to describe any evil being. The devils in D&D are (like the demons) based on a range of demonic characters from mythology. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devil _____________________________________________________________ Abishai Etymology: Hebrew (“Father of a gift”) First Appearance: First appeared in Dragon #75, later in Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Abishai was a Biblical figure, a nephew of King David, and was a military leader under David. In the book of Samuel, there is the following passage of King David rebuking Abishai: “What have I to do with you, O sons of Zeruiah, that you should this day be anadversaryto me? Should any man be put to death in Israel today?” (2 Sa 19:22). In Hebrew, the word adversary is satan, which may be how Abishai’s name became associated with the devil, though in context it is clear this is not the literal meaning of the passage. Amon Etymology: Egyptian First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Amun (Amon) was an Egyptian deity and patron of Thebes. As Amun-Ra, he was a creator deity and became viewed as the chief deity above the other Egyptian gods. Later, Amon was listed as a demon in the Ars Goetia (a section of the Lesser Key of Solomon, a 17th century grimoire). Amon was a Marquis of hell, who appeared as a wolf with a serpent’s tail or a man with a dog’s teeth in the head of a raven. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amun Asmodeus Etymology: From Greek asmodaios or from Hebrew asgmedai, possibly from Avestan aēšma-daēva (“wrath demon”) First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: In Judeo-Islamic lore, Asmodeus is a prince of demons or the king of earthly spirits (shedim/jinn). Possibly taken from the Zoroastrian aēšma-daēva, a demon of wrath. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asmodeus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeshma Baalzebul Etymology: From Latin, beelzebub, from the Hebrew ba'al zebub (“lord of the flies”) First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Taken from the name of a Philistine god, worshiped in Ekron, which was adapted in Abrahamic religion as a demon. Often associated with the Canaanite god Ba’al. In Christian lore, it may be used as another name for the Devil, or a name of a demon in hell. In ancient Semetic languages, Baal/Ba’al is an honorific that means “Lord” and used to identify several gods. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beelzebub Dispater Etymology: From Latin Dis (“wealthy”) + Pater (father). First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: In Roman mythology, Dis Pater was a roman god of the underworld. The name was sometimes shortened to simply Dis, which became used as a name for the underworld (similar to Hades and Hell, which are named after the Greek and Nordic gods Hades and Hel). In Dante’s *The Inferno (*1320), the lower levels of Hell are referred to as the City of Dis. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C4%ABs_Pater Bael Etymology: Semitic Ba’al (Lord), used for various patron gods. First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: In the Ars Goetia (17th century), Baal/Bael was the King of Hell. He had three heads (toad/man/cat). The name was taken from Baal-berith (Lord of the Covenant), a god worshipped in ancient Israel, mentioned in the Bible. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bael_(demon)) Barbed Devil (Hamatula) Etymology: Uncertain, but if based on Barbatos/Barbas, then Barbed would be from the Latin barbatus (“bearded”). First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Possibly based on Barbatos, one of the dukes up hell listed in the Ars Goetia (17th century), or Barbas (a president of hell) from the save source. Source of Hamatula is uncertain. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbatos https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marbas Belial Etymology: Hebrew Bəlīyaʿal (“worthless”), from beli (“without”) + ya’al (“value”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: A term in the Hebrew Bible to refer to "worthless men" such as idolaters and the wicked sons of Eli, later personified as a demon, such as in John Milton’s Paradise Lost (1667) and the Lesser Key of Solomon. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belial Bearded Devil (Barbazu) Etymology: Latin barbatus (“bearded”). First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Possibly based on Barbatos, one of the dukes up hell listed in the Ars Goetia (17th century), or Barbas (a president of hell) from the save source (see Barbed Devil) Bone Devil (Osyluth) Etymology: From the root osteo (“bone”), from Greek ostéon (“bone”) First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Uncertain Chain Devil (Kyton) Etymology: Uncertain First Appearance: Monstrous Compendium Annual, Volume Three (1996, 2nd edition AD&D) Origin: Uncertain Erinyes Etymology: from Greek erinys (“Avengers”) First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: The Erinyes also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance in ancient Greek religion and mythology. A formulaic oath in the Iliad invokes them as "the Erinyes, that under earth take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erinyes Glasya Etymology: Uncertain First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: In demonology, Glasya-Labolas is a Count or President of Hell, depicted as a dog with the wings of an eagle (see The Lesser Key of Solomon). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasya-Labolas Geryon: Etymology: Greek First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Name of a giant of Greek myth, the grandson of Medusa. Described as a monster with human faces, and various numbers of heads, limbs, and wings, depending on the teller. Heracles encounters Geryon in his 10th labor, and slays the giant with an arrow dipped in the venomous blood of the Lernaean Hydra. In Dante’s The Inferno, Geyron appears as the “Monster of Fraud”, with dragon-like wings and the body of a wyvern including a poisonous tail. The appearance in the Monster Manual closely matches Dante’s version. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geryon Horned Devil (Malebranche) Etymology: Italian malebranche (“evil claws”) First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: In Dante’s Divine Comedy, they are quarrelsome demons who punish corrupt politicians. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malebranche_(Divine_Comedy)) Hutijin Etymology: Unknown First Appearance: First appeared in Dragon #75, later in Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown Ice Devil (Gelugon) Etymology: Uncertain; in A Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language (1888), it is defined as “falsified”, but no clear connection to the creature can be found. First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Uncertain, but in Dante’s Divine Comedy, the innermost rings of hell are frozen, with Lucifer himself trapped in a lake of ice. Lemure Etymology: From Latin lemures (“spirits of the night”), evil spirits of the dead. First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: In Roman mythology, lemures may represent the wandering and vengeful spirits of those not afforded proper burial, funeral rites or affectionate cult by the living: they are thus not attested by tomb or votive inscriptions. Ovid interprets them as vagrant, unsatiated and potentially vengeful di manes or di parentes, ancestral gods or spirits of the underworld. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lemures Mammon Etymology: Possibly from Late Latin mammon, from Greek mammonas, from Aramaic māmōnā (“riches”), from Hebrew mamón (“money”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: A personified deity of wealth and greed; appears in the Christian New Testament. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mammon Mephistopheles Etymology: Likely a made up name, portmanteau of Hebrew mepthitz (“destroyer”) + German tophel (“liar”) or Greek me (“negating”) + phos (“light”) + philis (“loving”), meaning "not loving light" (a parody of Lucifer). First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: A demon of German folklore. Originates from the 16th century legend of Faust; a man who wagers his soul with the devil (named Mephistopheles). Based (loosely) on a real person (Dr Johann Georg Faust 1480-1540). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mephistopheles Moloch Etymology: From the Semitic root m-l-k (“king”) First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: An ancient Ammonite god, worshipped by the Canaanites and Phoenicians. In the Hebrew Bible (Deuteronomy/Leviticus), Moloch is an example of idolatry, associated with child sacrifice. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moloch Nupperibo Etymology: Japanese First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: The name is taken from Japanese mythology. The Noppera-bo is a faceless ghost (yokai) that takes delight in terrifying the living, but is otherwise harmless. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noppera-b%C5%8D Pit Fiend First Appearance: Monster Manual (1977) Origin: Uncertain, design is of a generic classic demonic creature, but it is not clearly linked to any source. Spined Devil (Spinagon) Etymology: Uncertain, but Spinagon is likely just a twist on “spine” First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: Unknown Styx Etymology: The river Styx, in Greek mythology. First Appearance: Fiend Folio (1981) Origin: Uncertain, but the river Styx exists in Hades, later associated with hell. Titivilus Etymology: Uncertain First Appearance: Monster Manual II (1983) Origin: A demon who was blamed for introducing errors into the works of scribes. First referenced in 1285. Described as collecting idle chat or skipped words during service, taking them to hell to be counted against the offenders. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Titivillus
2019.10.29 13:24 MarleyEngvallnew york knickerbocker has been created
THE SKETCH-BOOK OF GEOFFREY CRAYON, GENT. TOGETHER WITH ABBOTSFORD AND OTHER SELECTIONS FROM THE WRITINGS OF WASHINGTON IRVING "I have no wife nor children, good or bad, to provide for. A mere spectator of other men's fortunes and adventures, and how they play their parts; which, methinks, are diversely presented unto me, as from a common theatre or scene." ——Burton. EDITED WITH COMMENTS, NOTES, BIBLIOGRAPHY, AND TOPICS FOR STUDY, BY H. A. DAVIDSON, M.A. D. C. HEATH & CO., PUBLISHERS BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• EDITOR'S NOTE THE essays in this edition of "The Sketch-Book" have been selected and arranged with reference to their usefulness in the secondary school. Irving claims our attention as the first American to win distinction in the field of letters; this, too, in a day when no critic looked for elegance or refinement in the writings of our countrymen. He represents, also, a dis- tinct period in the history of American letters, and his writ- ings had marked influence in the group of literary men who first gave direction to the American press. In arrangement, Irving's essays approach the narrative form. This, in itself, waken interest, and the personal charm of the author is such that young and old, alike, find in him a companion and guide. There is, moreover, a fine literary quality in his writings, and the flavor of an older, quieter mood of mind gives them per- ennial charm. His style, modelled in a measure upon the writings of Goldsmith and of Addison, is very different from that of any writer of our own day; many of his essays are reminiscent and reflective, and his vocabulary includes scores of words or phrases that in these hustling days of train and phone have given place to more concise, direct forms of ex- pression. For these reasons, intimate acquaintance with the essays of "The Sketch-Book," and through them with the genial, cultivated man of letters who was their author, is to the young a first step in liberal culture. In his own generation Irving was, typically, the traveller and the man of letters. It has been the purpose of editor and publisher to include in this edition such essays as best represent the man in these aspects, and also to illustrate the forms of writing in which he excelled. The two forms of com- position typically presented in "The Sketch-Book," namely, the narrative essay of travel or of literary research, and the ro- mantic tale in which the form of the narrative differs but little from the essay, are especially adapted to aid indirectly the young student who would try his pen upon broader themes than those of the schoolboy's compositions. The essay becomes narrative in form by the introduction of the author, who re- lates as personal experience the observations of the traveller; the narrative essay, in turn, becomes the tale by changes so slight that the reader scarcely realizes where he lost sight of his guide, the story-teller, and became absorbed in complex influences working together toward an end. The material in either matter is of such common experience that a score of parallel subjects on which he may try his amateur pen come at once to the mind of the would-be writer. The essays included have been arranged in a sort of se- quence that students may the more readily attain familiarity with English scenes and their historic or literary associations, and thus share the mood of mind in which Irving wrote. "Abbotsford" has been added on account of the special interest of this essay to readers of "Ivanhoe" and "The Lady of the Lake," or of "Marmion" and "The Lay of the Last Min- strel," and also because the literary pilgrimage narrated in it took place immediately after Irving's residence in St. Bar- tholomew's Close, London. It belongs, therefore, to the period of "The Sketch-Book," and was intimately a part of the experiences from which Irving drew his essays. Courtesy to a living author whose hospitality he had en- joyed prevented the use of this, the most interesting of all his literary pilgrimages, as a part of "The Sketch-Book." A few other selections from Irving's writings have also been added on account of their close relation to one or another of the essays. A word may be said in regard to the illustrations of this edition. The scholarship and enthusiasm devoted to instruc- tion in the classics long since secured editions of well-known texts in which the illustrations, notes, etc., were drawn from the latest and best sources in archæology or in history; the skill of the artist has adorned the pages and at the same time given accurate and reliable impressions of real objects: Caesar's bridge, reconstructed from the point of view of the engineer; a Roman camp laid out to line and rule and estimated for numbers; the route of the ten thousand,——each and all——have long illustrated and vitiated the work of high school students in the classics. In editions for the study of English texts the contrast is such that it is unnecessary to point the moral. In the present edition of "The Sketch-Book," an attempt has been made, necessarily limited and experimental, to associate with an English classic illustrations that present places and objects faithfully and with historical accuracy, and thus to add significance to the text. The illustrations for West- minster Abbey, for instance, were selected after Irving's route through the enclosure and minster had been traced; this indicated the positions from which he viewed the Abbey and made it possible to select illustrations which correspond with this point of view and present in visible form the mental picture from which he wrote. This correspondence between illustrations and objects as really seen, renders the descriptive passage virtually a lesson in the art of composition, since the student at once compares the written expression with the picture. A word should be added in regard to the use of the "Topics for Study" which follow the text. They are in no sense outlines or analyses of the contents of the essays; outlines should be prepared by the students themselves under the guidance of the instructor, for an analysis furnished, or sug- gested, usually proves a substitute for individual work. The topics for study hold, however, a close relation with outline or analysis; and the detailed study of special topics should guide each one through his own work to an understanding of the plan of the essay and an appreciation of the literary means employed to give it orderly arrangement and charm. The teacher in his own preparation for the classroom will parallel the preliminary work of the editor; after which the study topics will serve as tests of the work planned and will suggest questions for discussion. They should also aid pupils in the preparation of lessons by stimulating alert attention and interest in the reading of the text, and by emphasizing points of significance in the content or the literary form of the essay under consideration. The use of the technical terms of narrative art has been avoided where possible. The pupils for whom this edition is designed are reading for the sake of the literature itself, and they slip, too easily, on the least excuse, into the formalities of text-book distinctions, without appreciation of the mean- ing intended. Literature should be opened to their under- standings as a storehouse of treasure to be enjoyed at will; as a foreign land wherein one wanders with friendly and companionable guides; as a return to past ages, and a min- gling in vanished scenes, recreated by the magic pen of the man of letters. Unless these topics for study, arranged in seeming routine for the classroom, contribute to this end, they will fail of the result to further which they have been written. The indirect purposes of the study of Irving's essays will best fulfill themselves under the personal guidance of the instructor. They should, however, be clearly defined, and may be summarized briefly as follows:—— 1. Familiarity with an author and a period in the history of American literature. 2. An elementary knowledge of the habits of observation, the sources and gathering of material, and the method of work of a writer of essays, travel, and picturesque history. 3. Familiarity with the narrative form of essay through examples, and through constant attempts to write in a similar vein. 4. Familiarity with the short story in the form of historical narrative,——a literary form differing but slightly from that of the narrative essay, as that, in turn, is distinguished from description pure and simple, by the introduction of the least possible element of personal interest, or of sequence in time. These three closely related literary forms and the character- istics distinguishing each have been emphasized in comments, suggestions, and topics for study, and in them is found the chief significance of "The Sketch-Book" for the student of literary art. 5. Increase of the student's vocabulary, and familiarity with phrases and with the forms of literary expression. This result should be gained indirectly, if possible, by the aid of books of reference, parallel reading, etc. Study of vocabulary must be effectively done to be of value. The pupil, seeking carelessly in dictionaries for a narrow interpretation of word or phrase, rarely adds to his own too limited means of expression. Nor is the definition of unusual or obsolete words of special value. The writing vocabulary of the pupil must be increased chiefly by drawing into habitual use words already familiar and well understood when seen in context; the reading vocabulary, on the other hand, is increased by additions to the number of words easily contributing to the meaning of the sentence in which they are found. For the young student, the important things are the clear distinction in meaning between words almost, but not quite, equivalent, and the drawing into habitual use of many common words and phrases which will afford the means of varied expression. Nothing, however, calls for more inven- tive and persistent effort on the part of the instructor than the study of vocabulary, for the moment that this task is made a feature of the recitation the attention of teacher and class, alike, declines upon a series of miscellaneous and unrelated definitions, or bits of information, and thus the minds of all are hopelessly diverted from the content and literary value of the text. The study of vocabulary should never be min- gled with the study of content or of literary form, but it may be made the subject of a single lesson at the conclusion of each essay. One method for this study is suggested here: the essay may be divided into sections and assigned to divisions of the class for examination and report. Definite topics should be suggested, such as a list of all words and pupils is unable to define without the aid of a dictionary; a list of all words that he, himself, is not in the habit of using and that, for this rea- son, seem unfamiliar,——for these he should be required to suggest the word he would use in place of the one he has noticed, this should lead to discussion of use and meaning; a list of words for which one or more equivalents might be suggested, with reasons for the change; and, finally, a list of phrases for which a single word could be substituted or of sentences that could be made clearer or more effective by rearrangement, or that could be shortened without loss of significance or of that literary transition from idea to idea which is so marked a feature of Irving's style. It is unnecessary here to call attention to Irving's indebted- ness to other authors; references to older essays that may have furnished hints for his own composition are occasionally given in the notes. In Goldsmith's four essays on Sir John Falstaff and The Boar's Head Tavern in Eastcheap, for in- stance, may be found the germ of Irving's researches and reflections on the same themes; and the curious may discover in such papers as Goldsmith's "An Account of Westminster Abbey," or Addison's "Reflections in Westminster Abbey," a reason, at least, for the choice of subject, and a suggestion of the temper of mind in which it was approached by our travel- ler and citizen of the world. But the study of Irving's originality, or of his accuracy as an observer or antiquarian, is for older students and critics. The perennial charm of the first American humorist and man of letters must lie for us all in his own personality, in his gift of lending for the nonce an attitude of mind and a mood, so that we each find in foreign lands and far-away times an experience in which his- tory, association, and emotion unite in an indelible impression on the mind. The editor wishes to acknowledge indebtedness to many persons who have given aid in the detail of the present edition; especially to Mr. George Turner Phelps, of Cam- bridge, Massachusetts, a most careful student of art, for the tracing of Irving's route as shown in his order of description, and for the selection of illustrations and references for "Westminster Abbey." It is due to Mr. Phelps's intel- ligence and generous expenditure of time that the illus- trations represent the minister and school as Irving saw them, for considerable restorations and changes have since taken place. H. A. DAVIDSON. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• THE PUBLICATION OF "THE SKETCH-BOOK" THE papers of "The Sketch-Book," with two exceptions, were written in England. Irving sent them to the United States for publication and they were issued in numbers, in 1819—1820. He had not intended to reprint the essays in England, as he thought them little likely to interest readers there; he admits, also, that he had no wish to encounter the severe criticism of the British press, at that time especially hostile to anything from America. The second number, how- ever, fell into the hands of Godwin, the author of "Caleb Williams," who found in it essays such as, in his opinion, "few Englishmen of that time could have written." Ten days after the date of Godwin's letter, the London Literary Gazette began to republlish the essays of "The Sketch-Book" serially, and their success was immediate. In a short time it became necessary that Irving should assume the responsi- bility for the republication of his own essays in order to pro- tect himself. He applied first to Murray, who declined the honor. A little later, in January, 1820, he made a contract with a publisher named Miller, and volume one was brought out in February. It sold rapidly, but just when success and profits seemed secure the publisher failed. At this juncture, Walter Scott, who had come to London to assume his title, induced Murray to undertake the publication of Irving's works. The success of "The Sketch-Book" in England was such that in October of the same year Murray wrote to Irving, begging him to draw on the house for one hundred guineas in addition to the terms agreed upon in the contract, and in the following June he again paid the author a sum in excess of the agreement. This was the beginning of Irving's success as a man of letters, and thereafter, whatever he found time to write was eagerly welcomed and brought him both honor and profit in generous measure. In Blackwood's Magazine, February, 1820, "A Royal Poet" and "The Country Church" were quoted in full from number three of "The Sketch-Book" with the following comment on the style of the writing:—— The style in which this ["A Royal Poet"] is written may be taken as a fair specimen of Irving's more serious manner—it is, we think very graceful——infinitely more so than any piece of American writing that ever came from any other hand, and well entitled to be classed with the best English writing of our day. . . . Nothing has been written for a long time for which it would be more safe to promise great and eager acceptance. The story of "Rip Van Winkle,"—— the "Country Life in England," the account of his voyage across the Atlantic, and "The Broken Heart,"——are all, in their several ways, very exquisite and classical pieces of writing, alike honorable to the intellect and he heart of their author. In the July number of Blackwood's Magazine of the same year, "Knickerbocker's History of New York" was reviewed, and this tribute to the author's genius was added:—— Mr. Washington Irving is one of our first favorites among the Englilsh writers of this age——and he is not a bit less so for having been born in America. . . . He well knows that his "thews and sinews" are not all, for which he is indebted to his English ancestry. . . . The great superiority over too many of his countrymen, evinced by Mr. Irving on every occasion, when he speaks of the manners, the spirit, the faith of England, has, without doubt, done much to gain for him our affection. But had he never expressed one sentiment favorable to us or to our country, we should still have been compelled to confess that we regard him as by far the greatest genius that has arisen on the literary horizon of the new world. CONTENTS OF THE FIRST EDITION OF "THE SKETCH-BOOK" OF GEOFFREY CRAYON, GENT. (Originally issued in numbers in New York, and reprinted in England.) Number One, published May 15, 1819. The Author's Account of Himself. The Voyage. Roscoe. The Wife. Rip Van Winkle. Number Two, published in July, 1819. English Writers on America. Rural Life in England. The Broken Heart. The Art of Book Making. Number Three, published September 13, 1819. A Royal Poet. The Country Church. The Widow and Her Son. The Boar's Head Tavern, Eastcheap. Number Four, published, published November 10, 1819. The Mutability of Literature. The Spectre Bridegroom. Rural Funerals. Number Five, published in December, 1819. Christmas. The Stage-Coach. Christmas Eve. Christmas Day. The Christmas Dinner. Number Six, published in March, 1820. The Pride of the Village. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. John Bull. Number Seven, published September 13, 1820. Westminster Abbey. Stratford-on-Avon. Little Britain. The Angler. Reprinted in the English edition from the Analectic Maga- zine, New York. Traits of Indian Character. Philip of Pokanoket. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• RESIDENCE, TRAVELS, ETC. MATERIALS OF LITERARY WORKS PUBLISHED WORKS ————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————— 1783 Born in New York city. 1787—1798. In schools. 1798. Spent a vacation in Sleepy Hollow. Description in "Legend of Sleepy Hollow," from memory of visits in boyhood. 1799—1804. Read law. 1800. First voyage up the Hudson. NOTE——Catskills, as described in 1802. Second voyage up the Hudson. "Rip Van Winkle," had been seen only from the river. Morning Chronicle established by Peter Irving, proprietor and edi- Contribution signed "Jonathan tor. Oldstyle," æt. 19. 1803. In New York City. Travel. Up the Hudson, Ogdens- burg, Montreal, Quebec. 1804. May. Sailed for Bordeaux, France. 1804—1805. Travel in Europe. 1806. Admitted to the Bar. "The Nine Worthies," or "The Entered law office of John Irving Lads of Kilkenny," I, 122. in New York city. 1807. Death of Irving's father. Salmagundi begun. Travel. Washington Irving. Literary experiments in Salma- Editors James K. Paulding. gundi suggest essays written William Irving. later. Launcelot Langstaff. alias Anthony Evergreen. William Wizard. 1808. Travel. Second trip to Montreal. Knickerbocker's "History of New York" begun as a bur- lesque on a recently published book. 1809. Death of Matilda Hoffman. Acquaintance with Jesse Merwin Poor health, residence at Kinder- (Ichabod Crane). Writing on the "History of New hook, Ravenswood, etc. York." Published in December. 1810. Organization of firm of P. and E. Irving, New York. P. Irving and Company (Washington Irving), London. Travel. Washington, D.C. Contributor, then editor of maga- zine called (1) Select Reviews; (2) Analectic Magazine. 1812—1814. Resident in New York. "Traits of Indian Character" and Aide to Governor Tompkins. "Philip of Pokanoket" were Travel. To Sackett's Harbor, Lake written for this magazine. Champlain, etc. 1815. In New York and Philadelphia. May. Sailed for Liverpool. In England. In Liverpool, with Peter; in Birmingham, with sister, Mrs. Henry Van Wart. Travel. Excursions to Kenilworth, The first of several excursions to Warwick, Stratford-on-Avon, the home of Shakespeare. Wales, etc. 1816. In Liverpool and Birmingham. Travel. Excursions, especially in Derbyshire. Beginning of diffi- culties in business. 1817. In charge of office in Liverpool. Material for "Little Britain." Travel. Excursion in Wales. In "Boar's Head in Eastcheap," August, three weeks in London; etc. in September, excursion to Scot- Material for "Abbotsford," drawn land, Abbotsford. from notes written at this 1818. Bankruptcy of Irving Brothers. time. (Cause, War of 1812.) August. Went to London to enter Rambles and antiquarian re- on the profession of letters. search at this time furnished material for "The Sketch- Book." 1819. Declined a position in he Navy Publication of "The Sketch- department, Washington. Book" begun, in New York. 1820. Murray consents to publish for Ir- Murray was influenced to under- Numbers of "The Sketch-Book ving. take "The Sketch-Book," by concluded; published in book Sir Walter Scott form in New York and in Lon- don. 1821. Summer in Paris. "History of New York," reprinted Autumn in London. in London. Excursion to Birmingham and Derbyshire. The Wet Sunday at Oxford fur- nished material for "The Stout Gentleman," of Bracebridge Hall, I, 397. 1822. In London Characters of "Bracebridge "Bracebridge Hall," published Hall" drawn from Christmas simultaneously in England and Essays of "The Sketch-Book." in America. 1822—1823. In Germany, and in Paris; poor Studying German literature, health. scenes, society, etc. 1824. In London and in "Rural Eng- Studying Spanish. "Life of "Tales of a Traveller," written land." Washington" suggested. and published; in London, in 2 vols.; in New York, in 4 vols. 1825. In Paris. "American Essays," partly written; never completed or published. Met in Paris A. H. Everett, minister of United States at Madrid. 1826. January. Invited to join the Em- Translation of Navarrette's "Voy- bassy at Madrid, as an attaché of ages of Columbus" proposed. the Legation. 1826—1831. In Spain. Lived in house of the American Writing "Life of Columbus." Travel. Many tours of Grenada, Consul, O. Rich, and had free Andalusia, Barbary States, etc. use of an invaluable collection of books on colonial history. This enabled Irving to under- Engaged on a rough draft of "Con- take the "Life of Columbus." quest of Grenada." 1826. Visit of Lieut. A Slidell, of U.S. Slidell furnshed the paper on the Navy, in Madrid. route of Columbus for the "Life"; see II, 69, and Appen- 1827. dix. "Life of Columbus," concluded and published. 1828. Material collected while engaged on "The Life of Columbus," II, 1829. 129. "Chronicle of the Conquest of Grenada," published in London and in New York. 1828—1829. Abridgement of "Life of Colum- bus," completed in nineteen days, in November; published in America, in 1829. November-April, in Seville. Writing "The Legends of the Con- 1829. May. Resident in the Alhambra. quest of Spain." Appointed Secretary of Legation Collected materials for finishing at the Court of St. James. Spanish subjects. Return to London. Resolved upon a "Life of Wash- 1829—1831. Secretary of Legation in London. ington." Retired Sept. 20, 1831. Last visit Might have served as original of of Scott. Visit at Barlborough Bracebridge Hall, in Christmas Hall. Essays, II, 215. 1831. D. C. L., Oxford. Material for essay in "Crayon Mis- Excursion to Newstead Abbey, cellany." "Voyages of the Companions of home of Lord Byron. Columbus," published in Lon- Witnessed old fashioned observ- don and in Philadelphia. 1831—1832. December and January. Tour with ance of holiday festivities, as "The Alhambra," published in Mr. Van Buren, American min- described in Christmas Essays. London; on France, in transla- ister, to Barlborough Hall, New- tion; in New York. stead Abbey. 1832. Returned to the United States. First visit to scenes of "Rip Van Travel. Up the Hudson. Winkle." September. Tour in the West. This furnished materials for "A Tour of the Prairies." 1833. Travel.—Winter in Washington. Summer, first visit to the mountain region of the Catskills. 1834. In New York. Material for the "Story of Ralph Ringwood"picked up on a trip 1835—1836. Purchase of Wolfert's Roost, after- to Philadelphia. "Tour on the "The Crayon Miscellany." ward Sunnyside. Prairies," written. 1. A Tour on the Prairies. Resided at Hell Gate with Mr. Wrote "Astoria" with Pierre M. 2. Abbotsford and Newstead Astor. Irving. Abbey. October. Sunnyside occupied. Material in letters, journals, etc.. 3. Legends and conquests in the hands of Mr. Astor. Spain, published in London 1836—1842. At Sunnyside. The material of the Adventures and in New York. was a mass of travelling notes, "Astoria," published in London maps, etc., purchased from and in Philadelphia. Captain Bonneville of the U.S. Army. 1837, "Adventures of Captain Engaged upon a "Conquest of Bonneville," London and Phil- Mexico." Given up upon learn- adelphia. ing that Prescott was engaged upon the same subject. 1838. 1839—1841. Knickerbocker Magazine, estab- Irving contributed articles for Many essays in Knickerbocker's lished. two years. Magazine, reprinted in "Wol- fert's Roost." 1840. "Biography of Goldsmith," in Harper's Family Library. 1842—1846. Minister to Spain. Poor health and official duties prevented literary work: ma- terials collected. 1846—1859. In New York. Literary work irregular, on ac- Revision of complete works. New At Sunnyside. count of other engagements, editions. and of poor health. Also, in book form, 1849, "Oliver Goldsmith." 1850, "Mahomet and his Suc- cessors." 1855, "Wolfert's Roost." 1859. Death of Irving at Sunnyside. 1856—1859, "Life of Washington."
I've put together some resources and suggestions to help those visiting make the most out of their time in Champaign-Urbana. Let me know if you have any questions and I'll try to answer them! Most of the restaurants and bars mentioned below are in one of three areas:
Campustown - Area around Green St. just west of the Union. Primarily undergrads. Champaign's equivalent of O St. Lots of quick food options and a few bars designed for making bad decisions. Parking is limited and part of Green St was closed last I checked, so driving here is not your best option.
Downtown Champaign - Primarily grad students and locals. Champaign's equivalent of the Haymarket. Nicer food options and more relaxed bars. Parking options include the Busey Bank lot, surface lots to the north, and a garage to the northwest.
Downtown Urbana - Primarily locals. Not a lot in the way of food and bar options but they're there. Go here if you want to avoid the crowds (I'm guessing).
Transportation: Uber and Lyft are both available. I don't think I've ever seen a taxi here. MTD - Bus system is much better than it should be for a town this size. $1 to ride. I'm guessing the Yellow line would be of the most use to the greatest number of people. Campus parking lots aren't usually patrolled on the weekends, but I'd be more careful the closer I get to the stadium. Some of the non-metered street parking in the neighborhoods surrounding campus are reserved, so be aware. There's no shortage of construction around campus right now. Everything got put on hold with the state government not being able to pass a budget for like three years, so it's all happening now. I think a stretch of Green St. is the only road currently closed. Tailgating: Check out the game day guide, specifically Grange Grove. Plenty of tailgating in the parking lots surrounding the stadium as well. Just don't expect anything on the level of game day in Lincoln. The lack of recent success and the plethora of professional teams in Chicago hasn't help the enthusiasm surrounding the program. Lovie's beard on the other hand... Local Events: Urbana Farmer's Market Tyler Farr Concert There's the Spurlock Museum of World Cultures and the Krannert Art Museum That's about all I'm seeing on various local event calendars. There's probably other stuff going on that I missed. Nature: It's... a bit lacking around here. Check out the University Arboretum. The campus is pretty nice in general (and big), so maybe walk around for a bit to check it out. The University was founded around the same time as UNL, but enrollment grew much quicker so there's a lot of cool older buildings around the main quad. Lake of the Woods and River Bend nearby in Mahomet aren't terrible. There's also Homer Lake east of town a bit. There's a few golf courses around town, but I can't figure out if they allow non-members to play a round. Breweries: Not breweries, but check out Friar Tuck in Savoy or Binny's north of I-74 on Prospect for the best alcohol selection in town before going to your tailgate. Riggs - Best brewery in (on the edge of?) town in my opinion. Nothing fancy, they just make damn good beer. Check it out Friday evening before they close at 10:00 PM. Triptych - Another good option. Just south of Champaign in Savoy. Several less traditional styles of beer in addition to the standard options. I'd order their beer more often if the names didn't make me cringe. Destihl - Champaign's equivalent Lazlo's/Empyrean. Food is very good. Located in downtown Champaign. Blind Pig - I think their beer is good? Honestly I forget they're a brewery most of the time and just order $2 PBR. There's two locations within a couple blocks of each other in downtown Champaign, so it gets confusing trying to meet up with people. The location on Neil St. is bigger and has a larger selection of Blind Pig beers on tap. Marijuana: Illegal until Jan. 1, 2020 Food: Try one of the food trucks if you happen to see one. Several have been successful enough to open a storefront. I've listed several of my favorite restaurants, most unique to Champaign-Urbana. Check out Yelp or whatever else for other ideas. Seven Saints - Downtown Champaign. Probably the best selection of whiskey in town. Good selection of sliders and sandwhiches. Get one of the Triple "S" combo platters. Destihl - See above. Farren's - Downtown Champaign. Comparable to Honest Abe's. Meatheads - Located on Neil a mile south of Downtown Champaign. Good burgers and way too many fries. Black Dog - Downtown Champaign and Downtown Urbana. Good BBQ in a nice restaurant, but the price is a bit high for the portion size in my opinion. Bobo's BBQ - Located on Springfield east of Mattis. I think they have the best BBQ in town. Watson's - Downtown Champaign. Go here for fried chicken. Big Grove Tavern - Downtown Champaign. Standard American menu. $12 bottomless mimosa's for brunch on Saturday and Sunday. Original Pancake House - Located on Springfield west of Mattis. Breakfast food as the name implies. Merry Ann's - Several locations. 24 hour diner Papa Del's - Located on Neil a mile south of Downtown Champaign. Best option for deep dish pizza without driving to Chicago. Manolo's - Located just east of Campus. Pizza by the slice in a tiny store. Golden Harbor - Located on the southeast corner of Springfield and Neil. Authentic or Americanized Chinese food. Good for large groups. Rainbow Garden - Located on the southeast corner of Springfield and Neil. Authentic or Americanized Chinese food. Nice quiet restaurant. Jip Bap - Campustown. Heavily Americanized Korean food. Fat Sandwich - Campustown. Menu looks like it was made by a drunk undergrad. Go here after you're done drinking in Campustown. Fernando's - Campustown. My Mexican friend's favorite Mexican restaurant in town. They also have a food truck. Huaraches - Located in the middle of a neighborhood in Urbana. Small and good Mexican restaurant. Crane Alley - Downtown Urbana. Pub food and good beer selection. Portillo's - Located north of I-74 on Prospect. Chicago fast food chain. I hate this place but I feel like I should mention it. Bars: Starting with Campustown... Kam's - Iconic Illinois undergrad bar. Great place to make terrible decisions. Order a blue guy like everyone else. They either just relocated or are about to, so I'm not sure if they're even open at the moment or where the new location would be. Red Lion - This, along with Kam's, are probably the most popular undergrad bars. Good place to go if you want to dance on tables. I'm not gonna advocate for underage drinking, but Kam's and Red Lion are both 19+ and terrible at enforcing underage drinking. As a result, these two are the most likely to have campus police strolling through looking for underage drinking. Brothers - Same chain as the one in Lincoln. Legends - Standard campus bar. If I were taking my parents to a bar in Campustown, it'd probably be Legends or Murphy's. Murphy's - Another Standard campus bar. The Irish name is about the extent of its Irishness. Try one of their Murpharitas. Downtown Champaign... Pour Bros. - One of those pour your own beer places with a wide selection of beers. Handful of arcade games and an outdoor patio. They sell Busch Light so I don't think I've ever poured my own beer there. Esquire - Several pool tables. Free peanuts. Diverse crowd. Blind Pig - See above. Barrelhouse - Good beer selection. Rooftop seating and outdoor patio. Quality - Good beer selection. $2 PBR. Lots of grad students typically. Guido's - Loud music usually. Mostly under 30 locals from what I can tell. Brass Rail - Not at all like the one in Lincoln. Cash only. Typically pretty quiet. Bentley's - Good cocktails. A bit out of the way to the north. Crowd is a bit hipster-ish. Crudo - Wine bar. I've never been but I hear good things. Downtown Urbana... Crane Alley - See above. Sipyard - Popular date spot in an alley. Bunny's - Local crowd. Source of inspiration for Hugh Hefner, an Illinois Alumnus.
2019.03.09 02:02 ohamid345The "When the Prophet (ﷺ) intended to kill your father, he said: Who will look after my children? He replied: Fire" Hadith - In Context
Question: Assalam alaykum wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh. I just read the account of the battle of Badr in Ibn Ishaq’s biography of Prophet Muhammad, blessings and peace be upon him. He records the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, telling ‘Uqbah ibn Abi Muayt that Hell will take care of his children before his execution. Also, below is a hadith from Sunan Abu Dawud.
Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas‘ud. Ibrahim said, “Al-Dahhak ibn Qays intended to appoint Masruq as governor. Thereupon Umarah ibn Uqbah said to him: Are you appointing a man from the remnants of the murderers of Uthman? Masruq said to him, ‘Ibn Mas‘ud narrated to us, and he was trustworthy in respect of traditions, that when the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, intended to kill your father, he said: Who will look after my children?’ He replied: ‘Fire. I also like for you what the Messenger of Allah, blessings and peace be upon him, liked for you.’” [Sunan Abu Dawud 2686]
What is the authenticity of these two reports? Why would the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, utter such harsh words? And how can we reconcile them with his character, blessings and peace be upon him, as a mercy to the worlds? Need help. Your brother in faith. Answer: Wa alaykum assalam wa rahmat Allah wa barakatuh. Thank you for your question. The event of Uqbah bin Mu’ayt’s execution is one of many incidents that those seeking to undermine Islam and skew the perfect character of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, choose to focus upon. When read objectively, these narrations do not present any issues, nor contradict the noble rank of the Prophet or his being a mercy to the worlds, blessings and peace be upon him. Uqbah bin Mu’ayt Uqbah bin Mu’ayt was one of the fiercest and vilest antagonists of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, and the Muslims. Despite being a neighbor to the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, his acts of hatred towards the Prophet include; insults, mockery, throwing the entrails, blood, and waste of a camel on the Prophet as he prayed at the Kaba. Stepping on the Prophet’s neck while he was in prostration, spitting in the Prophet’s face, attempted murder of the Prophet by strangulation, blessings and peace be upon him, rejoicing at the death of the Prophet’s son Abdullah, and much more. As you rightly said, the death of Uqbah is mentioned in the books of Prophetic biography, such as Ibn Ishaq. After the Muslims won at Badr, the enemy soldiers were taken captive. The Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, ordered that two of these captives were to be executed; Uqbah being one of them. This is absolutely understandable given his vitriol towards the Muslims and the suffering he had caused. When about to be put to death, ‘Uqbah said, “Who will look after my children?” to which the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, answered, “The Fire.” Then he was executed. (Sunan Abu Dawud. The hadith has a sound chain of transmission.) The Fire The scholars have commentated on what the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, had meant by his answer “The Fire,” and it suffices us to quote what they have said as an explanation:
There are two opinions to his answer ‘The Fire,’ blessings and peace be upon him. The first is that the Fire will be their [‘Uqbah’s children’s] destruction, meaning if the Fire is to apply to them then so will it be [i.e if they die as disbelievers, then that will also be their fate]. The second possibility is that he, blessings and peace be upon him, was using a specific style of speech [uslub al hakim – in Arabic rhetoric, when one addresses a person with words that are not anticipated by the addressee, and which goes against the outward understanding of the word, in order to make it known that the import of the words are directed specifically to the person addressed], so the meaning is, ‘For you is the Fire,’ i.e. ‘Concern yourself with yourself and what is destined for you in the Fire, and leave the affairs of your children alone, for Allah is their Provider … and this [second opinion] is the correct opinion. (Sharh Mishkat al-Masabih) Perhaps the Prophet’s words “The Fire,” blessings and peace be upon him, were meant as additional castigation and punishment [of ‘Uqbah], not that he, blessings and peace be upon him, was stating that his [‘Uqbah’s] children will be in the Fire, for Walid and Umarah became Muslims on the Conquest of Mecca, and Allah is pleased with all the Companions. (Sharh Sunan Abu Dawud li Ibn Raslan)
In regards this event, we should note the following:
The plea of ‘Uqbah, “What about my children?” was a desperate attempt to escape the deserving death penalty and to be taken instead as a slave.
At least one of his sons, Yazid was legally an adult and a disbeliever at the time, who assisted the Quraysh at the Battle of Badr. Both he and his brother Umarah later became Muslims.
‘Uqbah had done everything in his power to hurt and destroy the Muslims, who up until Badr, had not fought with the Quraysh at all. ‘Uqbah was well aware of what the loss at Badr would mean for him. Additionally, the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, had previously warned him that he would execute him one day for his oppression and aggression, but since ‘Uqbah was in a position of power, he mocked the warning.
Harshness The response of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, to ‘Uqbah’s plea was deserved and just. If the response seems harsh to some, then it is important to know that the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, never took personal revenge or acted out of spitefulness for the sake of his own person and grievances. The person of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, is an intrinsic part of the the religion, and abuse and attack on his person is abuse of Allah, the religion of Islam, and the Muslims in general. And it is for their relentless and vehement crimes against Allah, his religion, and the Muslims, that certain figures such as ‘Uqbah were put to death and given harsh treatment. This is the context in which the answer of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, is correctly understood. This is made clear by the fact that Allah revealed a verse mentioning the death of ‘Uqbah, “On the day when the wrong-doer gnaws his hands, he will say: ‘Ah, would that I had chosen a way together with the messenger!’” (Sura al-Furqan 25:27) If critics take exception at the Prophet’s words, blessings and peace be upon him, and use it as a proof of a lack of his mercy and an example of a barbaric “medieval” nature (particularly compared to the false “meek-as-a-lamb” image put forward in regards the personality of Christ) they need only to look at the New Testament to find similar “harsh” expressions reportedly expressed by Christ, such as when he addresses the scribes and Pharisees and their evil designs against him and his followers: “Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell?” (Mathew 23:33) In other words, Hellfire has now become your fate. Perspective Given what we have mentioned above, it’s important to now put the death of ‘Uqbah in perspective. Out of seventy something captives taken at Badr, only two were executed: ‘Uqbah being one of them. And this was due to their unrelenting persecution of the Muslims. As for the remaining prisoners of war, we will allow the words of William Muir, who we should note was a Christian evangelic orientalist, and held very biased and unfair criticisms of Islam, to describe for us the treatment of the remaining captives from the Battle of Badr, so we may draw our own conclusions as to the mercy and character of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him: In pursuance of Mahomet’s commands, the citizens of Medina, and such of the refugees as possessed houses, received the prisoners, and treated them with much consideration. ‘Blessings be on the men of Medina!’ said one of these prisoners in later days; ‘they made us ride, while they themselves walked: they gave us wheaten bread to eat when there was little of it, contenting themselves with dates. (The Life of Mahomet) Turning the Other Cheek From the above, it is clear that these is not the cold-hearted acts of a callous leader, nor the principles of a barbaric religion, as some would have people believe to be the case. For mercy to be attributed to a person, it does not mean that the person is obliged to always turn the other cheek or pardon, nor to refrain from exacting just punishment. This is a false notion. In the same way, God’s punishing those who deserve punishment does not inhibit His being attributed by Mercy or being deserving of the Names Al-Rahman and Al-Rahim: the Most Merciful and Most Compassionate. [cf. Islam and Turning the Other Cheek] Merciful Not Weak In worldly affairs, particularly affairs of the state, every situation must be assessed on merit, and sometimes it is necessary to exact the law or bring people to justice. To not do so in situations which demand it can be considered a weakness and dangerous. It is well known that in war, there are times when certain individuals must be put to death. For not only are they deserving of such a fate for their heinous crimes, but it also serves the purpose of putting a final end to the threat they pose (and thereby bringing justice and peace), sending a clear warning to enemies that such aggression will not be tolerated, as well as showing a sign of strength. We see a similar incident concerning Salahuddin al-Ayyubi and Reginald (Reynald) of Chatillon when the former regained Jerusalem from the crusaders. Salahuddin had captured King Guy of Jerusalem and Reginald, and chose to spare the life of the King, yet did not extend the pardon to Reginald, who was a particularly lawless crusader who had robbed, killed, and enslaved Muslim civilians, as well attempting to dig up and kidnap the body of the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him! Reginald was executed shortly after being captured by Salahuddin. Yet despite this, Salahuddin remains a revered figure who was and still is acknowledged and praised a great deal in the West for his chivalry, generosity, and mercy. Salahuddin’s decision to execute Reginald is generally accepted as an expected and normal decision of a military leader in that situation. Hadith of Masruq You mentioned the hadith that, “Al-Dahhak ibn Qays intended to appoint Masruq as governor. Thereupon Umarah ibn Uqbah said to him, ‘Are you appointing a man from the remnants of the murderers of Uthman?’ Masruq said to him: ‘Ibn Mas‘ud narrated to us, and he was trustworthy in respect of traditions, that when the Prophet, blessings and peace be upon him, intended to kill your father, he said, “Who will look after my children?” He replied, “The Fire.” I also like for you what the Messenger of Allah, blessings and peace be upon him, liked for you.’” (Sunan Abu Dawud) This hadith has a fair chain of transmission. What is apparent from the narration is that the words of Masruq: “I also like for you what the Messenger of Allah, blessings and peace be upon him, liked for you,” was a bitter retaliation to Umarah opposing his appointment as governor and connecting his name with assassination of Sayyidna Uthman. It is not to be understood as something the Prophet actually meant, as discussed above. And Allah knows best. Source: SeekersGuidance
NARROWNESS of interpretation is the bane of apocalyptic study. "The words of this prophecy," "Things which must shortly come to pass'" such is the Divine description of the Book of the Revelation and of its contents. No one, therefore, is justified in denying to any portion of it a future application. The Book in its entirety is prophetic. Even the seven epistles, though they were undoubtedly addressed to Churches then existing, and though their intermediate reference to the history of Christendom is also clear, may well have a special voice in days to come for those who are to enter the fierce trials that shall precede the end.  In the fourth chapter the throne is set in heaven. Judgment now waits on grace; but when the day of grace is past, judgment must intervene ere the promises and covenants, with all their rich store of blessings, can be fulfilled. But who can unfold that scroll that lies on the open hand of Him who sits upon the throne? (Revelation 5:2) No creature in the universe  may dare to look on it, and God Himself will not break a single seal of it, for the Father has ceded the prerogative of judgment. The ministry of grace may be shared by all whom grace has blessed, but the Son of man is the only Being in the universe who can take the initiative in judgment; (John 5:22-27) and amid the anthems of the heavenly beings round the throne, and the swelling chorus of myriads of myriads of angels, echoed back by the whole creation of God, the Crucified of Calvary, "a Lamb, as it had been slain," takes up the book and prepares to break the seals. (Revelation 5:5-14) It is at the fifth seal that the vision crosses the lines of the chronology of prophecy.  Of the earlier seals, therefore, it is unnecessary to speak in detail. They are evidently descriptive of the events to which the Lord referred in the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew, as preceding the great final persecution; – wars and unceasing threats of war, kingdoms in arms rushing on one another to destruction; and then famine, to be followed again by pestilence, hunger and the sword still claiming their victims, and others being seized by strange and nameless deaths in the ever-gathering horrors of these cumulative woes. (Revelation 6:2-8) According to the twenty-fourth chapter of Matthew, the tribulation is to be followed immediately by the signs and portents which the old prophets have declared will herald "the great and terrible day of the Lord." So in the Apocalypse the martyrs of the tribulation are seen in the fifth seal, (Revelation 9) and in the sixth, the advent of the great day of wrath is proclaimed, the precise events being named which the Lord had spoken of on the Mount of Olives, and Joel and Isaiah had foretold long centuries before.  Like the dull, oppressive calm which precedes the fiercest storms, there is silence in heaven when the last seal is broken, (Revelation 8:1) for the day of vengeance has dawned. The events of the earlier seals were Divine judgments, doubtless, but of a providential character, and such as men can account for by secondary causes. But God has at length declared Himself, and as it has been in the past, so now, the occasion is an outrage committed on His people. The cry of martyrs is come up in remembrance before God, (Revelation 3) and it is the signal for the trumpet blasts which herald the outpouring of the long-pent-up wrath. (Revelation 6) To write a commentary on the Apocalypse within the limits of a chapter would be impossible, and the attempt would involve a departure from the special purpose and subject of these pages. But it is essential to notice and keep in view the character and method of the Apocalyptic visions. The seer, be it remembered, was not privileged to read a single line of what was written "within and on the back side" of the sealed scroll of the fifth chapter; but as each seal was broken, some prominent characteristic of a portion of its contents was communicated to him in a vision. The main series of the visions, therefore, represent events in their chronological sequence. But their course is occasionally interrupted by parenthetical or episodical visions; sometimes, as between the sixth and seventh seals, reaching on to the time of the end, and more frequently, as between the sixth and seventh trumpets, representing details chronologically within the earlier visions. The first and most important step, therefore, towards a right understanding of the Apocalypse is to distinguish between the serial and the episodical visions of the Book, and the following analysis is offered to promote and assist inquiry upon the subject.  – Chap. 6. – The visions of the first six seals; representing events in their chronological order.
\[Chap. 7. – Parenthetical; the first vision relating either to the faithful remnant of the fifth seal, or to an election in view of the judgments of the seventh seal; the second, reaching on to the final deliverance.\] Chaps. 8, 9. – The opening of the seventh seal. The visions of the first six *trumpet*s; consecutive judgments, in their chronological order. \[Chaps. 10. -11. 13. – *Parenthetical,* containing the hidden mystery of the seven thunders (10:3, 4) and the testimony of the witnesses (the latter being probably within the era of the fifth seal.)\] Chap. 11:15-19. – The seventh trumpet; the third and last woe (comp. 8:13; 9:12; 11:14), preceding the establishment of the kingdom (comp. 10:7; 11:15). \[Chaps. 12. -18. *– Parenthetical\]* Chap. 13. – The rise and career of the two great blasphemers and persecutors of the last days. Chap. 14. – The remnant of chap. 7. seen in blessedness. The everlasting Gospel (vers. 6, 7). The fall of Babylon (ver. 8). The doom of the worshippers of the Beast (vers. 9-11). The revelation of Christ, and final judgments, (vers. 14-20). Chap. 15. – A vision of events chronologically within chapter 8., the opening the seventh seal. (This appears from the fact that the faithful of the fifth seal are here represented as praising God in view of the judgments impending, – see vers. 2-4; which judgments are within the seventh seal.) Chap. 16. – The seven vials; a second series of visions of the events of the seven trumpets. This appears –
First, because the seventh trumpet and the seventh vial both relate to the final catastrophe. Under the seventh trumpet, the mystery of God is finished (10:7), and the temple of God is opened, and there are lightnings, voices, thunders, and an earthquake (11:19). Under the seventh vial, "It is done!" is heard from the temple, and there are voices, thunders, lightnings, and an earthquake (16:17, 18). Second, because the sphere of the judgments is the same in the correlative visions of both series: 1, The earth.
2, The sea. 3, The rivers. 4, The sun. 5, The pit, the seat of the beast. 6, Euphrates. 7, Heaven, the air.
[Chaps. 17., 18. – Detailed visions of the development and doom of Babylon, "the harlot," whose fall has been within the seventh trumpet and seventh vial; the last series of judgments of the seventh seal (11:18; 16:19).]
Chap. 19: The doom of the harlot being accomplished (ver. 2), the glory of the bride follows (ver. 7); the glorious revelation of Christ, and the destruction consequent thereon of the beast and false prophet (ver. 20). Chap. 20. – Satan is bound. The millennial reign of the saints (vers. 1-4). After the millennial reign, Satan is loosed, and once more deceives the nations. Satan is cast into the lake of fire. The judgment of the Great White Throne. Chaps. 21., 22:1-5. – The new heaven and new earth Chap. 22:6-21. – Conclusion. **\[**[**6**](https://www.fbinstitute.com/Anderson/Chapter14.html#14-6)**\]**
As the last trumpet and the last vial embrace the final judgments of the day of vengeance, which precede the advent of the glorious kingdom, they necessarily include the doom of the two great antichristian powers of the last days, – the imperial represented by the ten-horned beast, and the ecclesiastical typified by the scarlet woman. The visions of the thirteenth and seventeenth chapters, therefore, are interposed, descriptive of the rise and development of these powers. These accordingly give us details which relate to events within the earlier seals, for the martyrs of the fifth seal are the victims of the great persecutor of the thirteenth chapter. If the foregoing scheme be correct in the main, the eras included in the Revelation may be divided thus:
The seven Churches; the transitional period following the close of the Christian dispensation." 
The seven seals; the period during which all that prophecy has foretold shall precede the kingdom will be fulfilled.
It is manifestly within the period of the seals that the prophecies of Daniel have their fulfillment, and the next inquiry should be directed to ascertain the points of contact between the visions of St. John and the earlier prophecies. As already noticed, it is only in so far as prophecy falls within the seventy weeks that it comes within the range of human chronology. And further, the seventieth week will be a definite period, of which the epoch of the middle and the end are definitely marked. The epoch of the first week, that is, of the prophetic period as a whole, was not the return of the Jews from Babylon, nor yet the rebuilding of their temple, but the signing of the Persian decree which restored their national position. So also the beginning of the last week will date, not from their restoration to Judea, nor yet from the future rebuilding of their shrine, but from the signing of the treaty by "the coming Prince," which probably will once more recognize them as a nation.  But it is obvious that this personage must have attained to power before the date of that event; and it is expressly stated (Daniel 7:24) that his rise is to be after that of the ten kingdoms which are hereafter to divide the Roman earth. It follows, therefore, that the development of these kingdoms, and the rise of the great Kaiser who is to wield the imperial scepter in the last days, must be prior to the beginning of the seventieth week.  And within certain limits, we can also fix the order of the subsequent events. The violation of the treaty by the defilement of the Holy Place is to occur "in the midst of the week." (Daniel 9:27) That event, again, is to be the epoch of the great persecution by Antichrist, (Matthew 24:15- 21) which is to last precisely three and a half years; for his power to persecute the Jews is to be limited to that definite period. (Daniel 7:25; Revelation 13:5) "Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light." (Matthew 24:29) Such is the statement of the twenty-fourth of Matthew; and the sixth of Revelation exactly coincides with it, for the vision of the fifth seal embraced the period of "the tribulation"; and when the sixth seal was opened, "the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood," and the cry went forth, "The great day of His wrath is come." (Revelation 6:12, 17) In keeping with this, again, is the prophecy of Joel. "The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the Lord come." (Joel 2:31) The events of this day of vengeance are the burden of the vision of the seventh seal, including the judgment of Babylon, the scarlet woman – or the religious apostasy – by the agency of the imperial power (Revelation 17:16, 17) the beast, whose fearful end is to bring the awful drama to a close. (Revelation 19:20) We have definite grounds, therefore, for assigning the following order to the events of the last days:
The development of the ten kingdoms.
That the seventieth week will be the last seven years of the dispensation, and the term of the reign of Antichrist, is a belief as old as the writings of the Ante-Nicene Fathers. But a careful examination of the statements of Scripture will lead to some modification of this view. The fulfillment to Judah of the blessings specified in Daniel 9:24 is all that Scripture expressly states will mark the close of the seventieth week. Antichrist will then be driven out of Judea; but there is no reason whatever to suppose he will otherwise lose his power. As already shown, the seventieth week ends with the period of the fifth seal, whereas the fall of Babylon is within the era of the seventh seal. No one may assert that that era will be of long duration, and it will probably be brief; but the only certain indication of its length is that it will be within a single lifetime, for at its close the Antichrist is to be seized alive, and hurled to his awful doom (Revelation 19:20). The analogy of the past might lead us to expect that the events foretold to occur at the end of the seventieth week would follow immediately at its close. But the Book of Daniel expressly teaches that there will be an interval. Whatever view be taken of the earlier portion of the eleventh of Daniel, it is clear that "the king" of the thirty-sixth and following verses is the great enemy of the last days. His wars and conquests are predicted,  and the twelfth chapter opens with the mention of the predicted time of trouble, "the great tribulation" of Matthew and Revelation. The seventh verse specifies the duration of the "time of trouble" as "a time, times, and a half," which, as already shown, is the half week, or 1, 260 days. But the eleventh verse expressly declares that from the date of the event which is to divide the week, and which, according to Matthew 24., is to be the signal of persecution, there shall be 1, 290 days; and the twelfth verse postpones the blessing to 1, 335 days, or seventy-five days beyond the close of the prophetic weeks. If therefore "the day of the Lord" follows immediately upon the close of the seventieth week, it seems that Judah's complete deliverance is not to take place until after that final period has begun. And this is expressly confirmed by the fourteenth chapter of Zechariah. It is a prophecy than which none is more definite, and the difficulties which beset the interpretation of it are in no degree overcome by refusing to read it literally. It seems to teach that at that time Jerusalem is to be taken by the allied armies of the nations, and that at the moment when a host of prisoners are being led away, God will intervene in some miraculous way, as when He destroyed the army of Pharaoh at the Exodus  Comparison with the prophecy of the twenty-fourth chapter of St. Matthew is the surest and strictest test which can be applied to these conclusions. After fixing the epoch and describing the character of the great persecution of the last days, the Lord thus enumerates the events which are to follow at its close:– First the great natural phenomena predicted; then the appearance of the sign of the Son of man in heaven; then the mourning of the tribes of the land;  and finally the glorious advent. That there will be no interval between the persecution and the "great signs from heaven" (Luke 21:11) which are to follow it, is expressly stated; they are to occur "immediately after the tribulation." That an interval shall separate the other events of the series is equally clear. From the defilement of the Holy Place, to the day when the tribulation shall end, and the "fearful sights" and "great signs" from heaven shall strike terror into men's hearts, shall be a definite period of 1,260 days;  and yet when He goes on to speak of the Advent, the Lord declares that that day is known to the Father only: it should be His people's part to watch and wait. He had already warned them against being deceived by expecting His Advent before the fulfillment of all that must come to pass (Matthew 24:4-28). Now He warns them against apostasy after the accomplishment of all things, because of the delay which even then shall still mark His coming.  The words of Christ are unequivocally true, and He never enjoins upon His people to live in expectation of His coming, save at a time when nothing intervenes to bar the fulfillment of the hope. Fatalism is as popular among Christians as with the worshippers of Mahomet; and it is forgotten that though the dispensation has run its course these eighteen centuries, it might have been brought to a close at any moment. Hence the Christian is taught to live, "looking for that blessed hope." (Titus 2:12, 13) It will be otherwise in days to come, when the present dispensation shall have closed with the first stage of the Advent. Then the word will be, not "Watch, for ye know not what hour your Lord doth come," (Matthew 24:42) – that belongs to the time when all shall have been fulfilled, – but "Take heed that no man deceive you, all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet." (Matthew 4:6) CHAPTER 14 FOOTNOTES  The Bible is not intended for the present dispensation only, but for the people of God in every age; and it is incredible that they who are to be so severely tried shall fail to find in it words specially fitted and intended to counsel and comfort them in view of what they are to endure. "This prophecy" is the Divine description of the Apocalypse as a whole (Revelation 1:3). Compare the "must shortly come to pass" of Revelation 1:1 with the "must shortly be done" of 22:6. The salutation (1:4, 5) seems to fix the dispensational place of the Book as future. It is not the Father, but Jehovah; not the Lord Jesus Christ, but "Jesus Christ the faithful witness, the Prince of the kings of the earth;" and the Book speaks from a time when the Holy Spirit, as a person, will again be in heaven, to join in the salutation, which He never does in the Epistles of the New Testament. Revelation 1:19 is frequently quoted to prove that the Book is divided, and that the latter part only is prophetic. In refutation of this, I appeal to the most candid of apocalyptic commentators, Dean Alford, who thus translates the verse: "Write therefore the things which thou sawest, and what things they signify, and the things which are about to happen after these." He explains "the things which thou sawest" to be "the vision which was but now vouchsafed thee," and the closing words as "the things which shall succeed these, i. e., a future vision" (Greek Test., in loco).
In ch. 4:1, Alford inclines to give to the second meta tauta the general meaning of "hereafter." But the presumption is; that the words are used at the end of the verse in the same sense as at the beginning, *i. e.,* "after these things." The words imply that the fulfillment of the subsequent visions should be future, relatively to the fulfillment of the preceding vision, and not relatively merely to the time when the vision was given, which was a matter of course.
 Revelation 3. It is not, as in English Version, "no man," but oudeis. The Revised Version properly reads "no one."  Because the fifth seal relates to the great persecution of the future, which, as already noticed, is within the seventieth week. The first four seals relate to the events preceding in time the fulfillment of the fifteenth verse of the twenty-fourth of Matthew. Compare the sixth and seventh verses of that chapter with Revelation 6:1-8.  "The day of the Lord cometh…The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the Lord come" (Joel 2:1-31). "The day of the Lord cometh…The sun shall be darkened in his going forth, and the moon shall not cause her light to shine" (Isaiah 13:9, 10). "Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven" (Matthew 24:29). "There shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars" (Luke 21:25). "The sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood" (compare Joel 2:31), "and the stars of heaven fell unto the earth" (Revelation 6:12, 13).
I entirely agree with the following note of Dean Alford's *(Greek Test.,* Matthew 24:29): "Such prophecies are to be understood *literally,* and indeed, without such understanding would lose their truth and significance. The physical signs shall happen as accompaniments and intensification's of the awful state of things which the description typifies." Not of course that the moon will really become blood, any more than that the stars will fall. The words describe *phenomena* which men will witness, and which will strike terror into their hearts.
 The passages containing the parenthetical visions are marked in square brackets.  I purposely pass over chap. 12, because of the exceptional difficulties which attend the interpretation of it. "Anything within reasonable regard for the analogies and symbolism of the text seems better that the now too commonly received historical interpretation, with its wild fancies and arbitrary assignments of words and figures" (Alford, Greek Test., Revelation 12:15, 16). The only reasonable interpretation I have seen is that which regards the "man-child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron," and who "was caught up to God and His throne," as being the Lord Jesus Christ, and the woman as representing that people of whom, as concerning the flesh, Christ came" (Romans 9:5). But the objections to this are considerable. First, past historical facts are thus introduced into a vision relating to the future. I am not aware of any other instance of this in Scripture. Secondly, the main features of the vision after ver. 5 are not accounted for by the facts.
The following remarks are offered merely to assist inquiry and not at all as expressing a formed opinion on the matter. The 1, 260 days during which the woman is persecuted is precisely the period of "the great tribulation." Ver. 7 declares that during the woman's flight, Michael the Archangel fought on her behalf. Daniel 12:1, referring to the time of Antichrist's power, states that "at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of the people; and there shall be a time of trouble," *etc.,* describing "the great tribulation" which is to continue 1, 260 days. Again, the Old Scriptures clearly point to the career of a future David, a deliverer of the Jews, who will become their earthly leader at that time, and reign over them in Jerusalem afterwards. See, *e. g.,* Ezekiel 22-25, about David the Prince, who is certainly not Christ, seeing he is to have a palace in Jerusalem and a definite inheritance in the land, and who, moreover, is to offer burnt-offerings, etc. (Ezekiel 45:17). I suppose this is the great military conqueror of Isaiah 43:1-3. May not the Revelation 12 refer to this personage, who is to be Christ's vicegerent on earth, and who will, in fact, rule over all nations.
 That is, assuming that this portion of the Book has a prophetical aspect.  I do not assert that he will have reached the zenith of his power before that date. On the contrary, it seems extremely probable that the treaty with the Jews will be one of the steps by which he will raise himself to the place he is destined to hold, and that as soon as he has attained his end, he will throw off the mask and declare himself a persecutor. So Irenaeus teaches, and he possibly gives what was the tradition of the apostolic age.  He is neither king of the north nor of the south, for both these kings shall invade his territory (ver. 40), i. e., the powers which shall then respectively possess Syria and Egypt.  The day of battle" (Zechariah 14:3). The prophet adds: "And His feet shall stand on that day upon the Mount of Olives." I cannot conceive how any one can suppose this to be the great: and final advent in glory as described in Matthew 24:30 and other Scriptures. "The prophecy (Zechariah 14) seems literal. If Antichrist be the leader of the nations, it seems inconsistent with the statement that he will at this time be sitting in the temple as God at Jerusalem; thus Antichrist outside would be made to besiege Antichrist within the city. But difficulties do not set aside revelations; the event will clear up seeming difficulties" (Fausset's Commentary, in loco). It is idle to speculate on such a matter, but I presume the city will have revolted against the great enemy during his absence at the head of the armies of the empire, and that thereupon he will turn back to reconquer it. History repeats itself. Moreover, there is no reason to believe that he will reside in Jerusalem, though presumably he will have a palace there, and as part of a blasphemous pageant, will sit enthroned in the temple. That Jerusalem should be captured by a hostile army at such a time will seem less strange if it be remembered first that the true people of God therein shall have warning to leave the city at the beginning of these troubles (Matthew 24:15, 16.), and secondly, that the deliverance of the capital is to be tile last act in the deliverance of Judah (See Zechariah 12:7).  Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall "the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken: and then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven; and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory" (Matthew 24:29, 30).  kopsontai pasai ai phulai tas gas. Comp. Zechariah 12:12 (LXX), kopsetai ha ga kata phulas phulas.  Therefore if the Advent synchronized with these events, any one then living would be able to fix the date of it, once the epoch of the tribulation were known; whereas the chapter clearly shows that an interval will follow after all has been fulfilled, long enough to weed out mere professors, who, tired of waiting, will apostatize (Matthew 24:48), and to lull, even true disciples to a sleep from which their Lord's return will rouse them (Ibid. 25:5).  Matthew 24:42-51, and 25:10-13: "THEN shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins." tote, "at the period spoken of at the end of the last chapter, viz., the coming of the Lord to His personal reign" (Alford, Gr. Test., in loco.)] Though applicable to every age in which there is a waiting people on earth, the parable will have its full and special application in the last days to those who shall be looking back on the complete page of prophecy fulfilled. The entire passage from chap. 24:31, to chap. 25:30, is parenthetical, relating especially to that time.
2018.08.26 14:12 MediumFaultLe chien : formidable, précieux, le plus ancien ami
Ce dimanche 26 août : c'est la Journée mondiale du Chien ! Le chien (Canis lupus familiaris) est un mammifère carnivore, sous-espèce du loup (Canis lupus) de la famille des canidés. La femelle du chien s'appelle « chienne » et le jeune chien « chiot ». C'est aussi le plus ancien animal domestique, de nos jours souvent utilisé comme simple animal de compagnie et considéré comme le meilleur ami de l'homme. La journée mondiale du chien permet de mettre à l’honneur depuis des millénaires et partout dans le monde les chiens, ces meilleurs amis de l’homme. Cette journée est également une très bonne occasion de rappeler au plus haut point, combien ces êtres sont formidables et précieux. La domestication du chien daterait de plus de 27 000 ans ! La domestication du chien a commencé beaucoup plus tôt que généralement estimé jusqu'à présent et remonterait à plus de 27 000 ans, selon l'analyse génétique d'un fragment de mâchoire d'un ancien chien loup de Sibérie datant de 35 000 ans. Ainsi les humains auraient apprivoisé des chiens il y a de 27 000 à 40 000 ans, estiment les chercheurs. Des estimations précédentes basées également sur des analyses d'ADN suggéraient que les ancêtres communs des chiens modernes avaient divergé des loups au plus il y a 16 000 ans après la dernière période glacière. L'analyse génomique de cet ancien fragment de mâchoire, que le radiocarbone date de 35 000 ans, révèle que ce chien loup de Taimyr représente le plus récent ancêtre commun des loups et des chiens modernes. Les analyses d'ADN montrent aussi que les chiens husky de traîneau aujourd'hui en Sibérie et au Groenland ont un nombre inhabituellement élevé de gènes communs à ceux de l'ancien chien loup de Taimyr d'il y a 35 000 ans. Les races des chiens La Fédération cynologique internationale est la principale association chargée de la standardisation canine. Elle reconnait 335 races regroupées en dix groupes, dont la classification est en partie basée sur les quatre morphologies décrites précédemment, et en partie sur la spécialisation fonctionnelle de chaque race. Le chien policier Les chiens d'intervention sont les chiens utilisés par les forces de l'ordre au sein d'unités spécialisées appelées brigades canines. En France, celles-ci se trouvent dans la Police nationale, la Gendarmerie nationale, la Douane, la police municipale et de sécurité privée. La police et la gendarmerie utilisent ces chiens pour différentes fonctions : la recherche d'explosifs ; la recherche de stupéfiants ; la recherche de personnes ; le sauvetage (recherche de personnes victimes de noyade, ou prise sous une avalanche, des décombres, etc.) ; la défense. Le saviez-vous ? Le cerveau du Chien figure parmi les plus performants du règne animal, démontrant de très bonnes capacités cognitives avec des sens très développés. Le sens de l'odorat est un sens extrêmement développé chez le Chien. Le Chien peut entendre des sons jusqu'à quatre fois plus loin que l'homme et capte également des sons inaudibles pour l'homme (ultrasons). L'étude des Chiens et des races de Chiens est appelée cynologie. Le chocolat contient de la théobromine, substance mal tolérée par les Chiens : des doses faibles (deux grammes suffisent pour les plus petits), peuvent leur être mortelles. Selon une analyse comparative d'échantillons d'ADN mitochondrial, les lignées du Chien et des autres sous-espèces de Loup se seraient séparées il y a environ 100 000 ans. Les plus anciens restes fossiles connus de Chien domestique ont été trouvés dans les grottes de Goyet en Belgique et datent de 31 700 ans. Le 3 novembre 1957, Laïka (du russe : Лайка, « petit aboyeur »), une chienne du programme spatial soviétique devient le premier être vivant mis en orbite autour de la Terre. Elle a été lancée par l'URSS à bord de l'engin spatial Spoutnik 2, un mois après le lancement du premier satellite artificiel Spoutnik 1. On distingue quatre grandes catégories de Chiens définies par Jean Pierre Mégnin, selon leur morphologie : Les molossoïdes (chiens de « type molosse ») Les braccoïdes (chiens de « type braque ») Les graïoïdes (chiens de « type lévrier ») Les lupoïdes (chiens « ressemblant morphologiquement au loup ») Le chien et les religions Dans l'Antiquité, les chiens servaient aux combats (par exemple Irish wolfhound), à la production de viande et étaient aussi supports de croyances et de rites de type religieux. Plus tard, sous l'Empire romain, ils étaient des animaux de compagnie, des gardiens de troupeaux et utilisés pour la chasse. Au Moyen Âge, dans les campagnes et les milieux populaires, les Chiens suscitaient des peurs collectives et faisaient l'objet d'exterminations quotidiennes. Pour la noblesse, en revanche, ce fut l'âge d'or de la vènerie. À la Renaissance, la passion des hommes pour la chasse parvint à conserver une place aux Chiens dans la société. La noblesse considérait le Chien comme un signe de puissance et de grandeur. Ceci permit le développement de races de Chiens de compagnie. Dans l'Antiquité grecque, le Chien est également utilisé lors d'insultes : ainsi, Agamemnon traite-t-il Achille « d'Homme à l'œil de chien, au cœur de cerf ». Le juron préféré de Socrate est Par le chien, et se rapporte au dieu égyptien Anubis. Dans le Judaïsme, Le Choul'han Aroukh interdit de déplacer les animaux durant Chabbath ou les fêtes. Il est interdit, concrètement, de les porter ou même de les caresser. Il faut donc faire attention durant Chabbath de ne pas les toucher. Propreté : si vous avez touché votre chien, vous n'avez pas le droit de faire une bénédiction ou une prière tant que vous n'avez pas fait Nétilat Yadaïm (sans bénédiction). Sainteté : Il est préférable que l'animal ne soit pas présent durant le Kiddouch ou durant d'autres moments investis de sainteté. Le Talmud n'approuve pas non plus la détention d'un chien chez soi, où il doit alors être constamment enchainé. Il est interdit à une veuve de vivre seule avec un chien, de crainte d'être soupçonnée d'avoir des « relations interdites ». Les chiens sont considérés comme de fidèles compagnons par les Chrétiens. Dans l'iconographie chrétienne, le Chien qui est représenté aux côtés des saints a un rôle positif et actif. Par exemple Saint Wendelin est accompagné d'un chien de berger, tandis qu'on attribue à saint Eustache, saint Hubert et saint Julien l'Hospitalier des chiens de chasse. Dans la peinture dominicaine, les Chiens ont pour rôle de mettre en fuite des loups, représentant les hérétiques, qui s’attaquent aux brebis, image des fidèles. En l’Islam, selon les récits, le Prophète Mahomet aurait dit qu'un homme qui donne à boire à un chien assoiffé sera pardonné de ses péchés. L’Islam déconseille aux musulmans de garder dans leurs maisons des chiens appartenant à des races autres que des chiens de chasse, chiens de berger ou chiens de garde pour les terrains (par les terrains il faut comprendre les champs). Les chiens n’ont pas toujours été condamnés en Islam et la consommation par les hommes de la nourriture que les chiens amenaient aux chasseurs dans leur gueule était permise. Le chien des Gens de la Caverne Les Sept Dormants d'Éphèse ou les Gens de la Caverne est un groupe de personnages et un miracle qui semble commun aux chrétiens et aux musulmans ; il met en scène des jeunes gens dormant dans une caverne pendant une très longue durée (300 ans solaires). Une Sourate coranique raconte et décrit leur périple : ils sont devenus monothéiste, ils délaissèrent leurs familles, leurs biens et s'enfuirent pour sauvegarder leur foi. Dieu les guida vers une caverne dans laquelle ils entrèrent pour se reposer. Ils y dormirent alors 300 ans solaires. Le Coran dit qu'ils se trouvèrent dans un endroit vaste de la caverne. Ensuite tous se couchèrent, le chien à l'entrée, les pattes de devant étendues.
2018.05.02 01:20 MarleyEngvallLecture XIX: The History of the Prophetical Order (part 1)
by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D.D. The life of Samuel is so marked an epoch in the history of the Prophetical Office, that this seems the fittest place for the consideration of an institution, which, though it bore its chief fruits in the periods following on that just brought to a close in the fore- going Lectures, may yet be viewed as a whole in this critical moment of its existence. It will accordingly be my endeavor to describe, first the Prophetical Order or Institution, in is original historical connection, and, secondly, the nature of the Prophetical Teaching in its relations to the moral and spiritual condition of the Jewish, and, indirectly, of the Christian Church. I. Before entering on the history of the order, the meaning of the word "Prophet," in the two sacred languages, must be exactly defined. The Hebrew word Nabi is derived from the verb naba, which, however, never occurs in the ac- tive, but only in the passive conjugations of the verb, according to the analogy of the deponent verbs in Latin: — loqui, fari, vociferari, vaticinari, where the pas- sive form seems to indicate that the speaker is swayed by impulses over which he has not himself entire con- trol. The root of the verb is said to be a word sig- nifying "to boil or bubble over," and is thus taken from the metaphor of a fountain bursting forth from the heart of man, int which God has poured it. Its actual meaning is to pour forth excited utterances, as ap- pears from its occasional use in the sense of raving. Even to this day, in the East, the idea of prophet and madman are closely connected. The religious sense, in which, with these exceptions, the word is always employed, is that of "speaking" or "singing un- der a divine afflatus or impulse," to which the peculiar form of the word, as just observed, lends itself. The same seems to be the general sense of the Arabic neby. It is this word that the Seventy translated by a Greek term not of frequent usage in classical au- thors, but which, through their adoption of it, has passed into all modern European languages; namely, the word [. . . .] "Prophet." The sense of this word in the classical writers is not less clearly defined than that of Nabi in Hebrew, and, though not exactly the same in sense, is sufficiently analogous to justify its employment by the Alexandrine translators. It is always and interpreter or medium of the Divine will. Thus Apollo is the Prophet of Jupiter, the Pythia was the Prophetess of Apollo, and the attendants or ex- pounders of her ejaculations were the Prophets of the Pythia. It is possible that the Seventy may have derived their use of the word from its special applica- tion in Egypt to the chief of the Sacerdotal order in any particular temple. His duties were to walk at the close of the sacred processions, bearing in his bo- som an urn of sacred water; to control the taxes, and to teach the sacred books. It was probably in this last capacity that the Greek name of "Prophet" was applied to him, and that we hear of the office being held by Sonches and Sechnuphis, the reputed masters of Pythagoras and of Plato. The Greek preposition pro- as compounded in the word Pro-phet, has, as is well known, the three- fold meaning of "beforehand," "in public," and "in behalf of" or "for." It is possible that all these three meanings may have a place in the word. But the one which unquestionably predominates in its original meaning is the third, — "one who speaks for," or as "the mouthpiece of another." As applied therefore by the Septuagint, in the Old Testament, and by the writers of the New Testament, who have taken the word from the Septuagint, it is use simply to ex- press the same idea as that intended in the Hebrew Nabi: not foreteller, nor (as has been said more truly, but not with absolute exactness), "forth-teller," but "spokesman," and (in the religious sense in which it is almost invariably used) "expounder," and "in- terpreter" of the Divine Mind. The English words "prophet," and "prophe- sying," originally kept tolerably close to the Biblical use of the word. The celebrated dis- pute about "prophesyings," in the sense of "preach- ings," in the reign of Elizabeth, and the treatise of Jeremy Taylor on The Liberty of Prophesying, i.e., the liberty of preaching, show that even down to the seventeenth century, the word was still used, as in the Bible, for "preaching," or "speaking according to the will of God." In the seventeenth century, however, the limitation of the word to the sense of "predic- tion," had gradually begun to appear; founded partly on a misapprehension of the true meaning of the Greek preposition, partly on the attention attracted by the undoubtedly predictive parts of the prophetical writings. This secondary meaning of the word had by the time of Dr. Johnson so entirely superseded the original Scriptural signification, that he gives no other special definition of it than "to predict, to foretell, to prognos- ticate;" "a predicter, a foreteller;" "foreseeing or foretelling future events;" and in this sense it has been used almost down to our own day, when the revival of Biblical criticism has resuscitated, in some measure, the Biblical use of the word. A somewhat similar divergence of sentiment has sprung up in the Mussulman world. The Sonnites or rthodox Mussulmans still use the word in its origi- nal sense as a divinely instructed teacher, whilst the Shiahs or heretical Mussulmans use it as equivalent to one who has the power of prediction. It is even said that this difference as to the meaning of the Prophetic office, far more than the dispute respecting the succession to the Caliphate, lies at the root of the great schism in the Mussulman community. How far the modern limitation of the word is borne out by the unquestionable prevalence of Prediction in the Prophetical Office of the Jewish Church, will best appear in the next Lecture. Meanwhile, it is impor- tant at the outset, and in the history of the Order, to adhere to the ancient and only Biblical use of the term: the more so, as the contracted sense in which it is now popularly employed would exclude from our consideration the most remarkable and characteristic instances of it, — Moses, Samuel, and Elijah, in the Old Testament; John the Baptist and S. Paul in the New. THE PROPHET then was "the messenger or interpre- ter of the Divine will." Such is the force of all the synonymes employed for the office. The Prophet is expressly called "the interpreter," and "the messen- ger of Jehovah." He is also called "the man of spirit," and "the Spirit of Jehovah" enters into him, "clothes" him (thus corresponding almost exactly to our word "inhabited.") The greater Prophets are called "men of God." His communication is called "the word of Jehovah," and a particular term is used for the Divine voice in this connection, chiefly in Ezekiel and Jeremiah. In the New Testament this meaning is still continued. The detailed descriptions of "prophe- sying," by S. Paul are hardly distinguishable from what we should call "preaching;" the word "exhor- tation," or "consolation," is used as identical with it; and the same stress as in the Old Testament is laid on the force of the Divine impulse, whence it sprung. "Prophecy came not in old time by the will of man; but holy men of old spake as they were moved by "the Holy Ghost." "God spake by (or "in") the Prophets;" whence the phrase in the Nicene Creed, The Holy Spirit . . . spoke by the Proph- ets." Two points thus distinguish the Prophets from first to last. The first is their consciousness of deriving their gift from a Divine source. No other literature so directly appeals to such an origin. The impulse was irresistible. "Woe is me if I preach not the "gospel." Secondly, the Divine communication is made through the persons of men. The rustling leaves of Dodona, or the symptoms of the entrails in Roman sacrifices, were thought "oracular," or "pre- dictive," but would never have been called "pro- phetic." The "Urim and Thummim" on the High Priest's breastplate might be the medium of a Divine Revelation, but whatever intimations they conveyed were not made through the mind and mouth of a man, and were therefore not "prophecies." II. Such being the meaning of the word, I proceed to give a brief history of the Institution in the Jew- ish Church. The life and character of each individual prophet will belong to the period in which he ap- peared. But a general survey of all is necessary to a just understanding of each. Strictly speaking, the name and office of a Prophet was not confined to the Jewish people. Not to speak of the origin of the name as derived from Greek and Egyptian heathenism, the Bible itself recognizes the existence of "Prophets" outside the pale of the true religion. The earliest and greatest instance of a heathen Prophet is Balaam; and the form as well as the substance of his prophecies is cast in the same mould as that of the Hebrew proph- ets themselves. The "prophets of Baal" are also fre- quently mentioned during the history of the monarchy, and "false prophets" are described as abounding. S. Paul also recognizes Epimenides the Cretan as a "prophet;" perhaps merely as an equivalent to "poet," or vates, but probably in allusion to the mys- terious and religious character with which Epimenides was invested. S. Jude also speaks of the apocryphal book of Enoch as a prophecy. These instances are important, both as illustrating the meaning of the word and the nature of the office, and also showing the freedom with which the Bible recognizes "revela- tion" and "inspiration" outside the circle of the Chosen People. Still it is within that circle, and as a special characteristic of the Jewish Church and na- tion, that the office must be considered. (1.) There is no direct mention of a Prophet be- fore the time of Moses. The name is indeed inciden- tally given to Abraham when Abimelech is warned to restore Sarah, "for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee;" and probably the Psalmist makes the same allusion in the expres- sion, "Do my prophets no harm." But Abraham never utters what would be called "prophecies;" and those promises and predictions which are made to him, or which occur in the earlier chapters of genesis, in the primeval narrative of the Fall, though often classed by modern divines as "the first prophecies," are never so called in the Bible, which, as we have seen, only recognizes under the name of "prophecies" those which are delivered through the personal agency of men. A nearer approach is in the Blessing of Jacob. This, however, is never directly called a prophecy in the Bible, nor is Jacob called a Prophet. But Moses receives the name repeatedly, and in one famous passage is made the type or like- ness of the whole order, even of the Last and Greatest of all. The exposition of the Law is what most peculiarly marks his position. The poetical gift displayed in the three Songs of the Pentateuch, and \ the 90th Psalm, belongs to him in common with the Prophets of a later time. Such a burst of prophecy, as is contained in the acts and words of Moses, of itself marks his appearance as the first Prophetical epoch in the Jewish Church, and, as might be expected, in- dications of its lesser manifestations elsewhere at this time are faintly discerned. Aaron is described as "a prophet" in relation to Moses himself. Miriam is almost always designated as "the prophetess," and on one occasion not only the seventy elders, but two youths outside the sacred circle, are described as catching the Divine afflatus; and the great Prophet, in despite of the narrower spirit of the soldier Joshua, wishes that it should extend to the whole people. (2.) With the generation of Moses the gift seems for a time to have expired. Joshua has some- times been reckoned as a Prophet, and his address to the people before his death may, in the Hebrew sense of the word, perhaps be regarded as a prophecy. But this is not a usual view of his posi- tion. Josephus thinks that he was accompanied by a Prophet. And on one occasion, just before his death, a "messenger of the Lord," an earlier "Malachi," is described as addressing the people at Bochim. Two more such nameless Prophets appear in the days of Gideon and Eli. Ehud apparently had that character at the court of Moab. But these are doubtful and isolated instances. The only detailed and character- istic prophecy of the time of the Judges, is that of "the Prophetess" Deborah. The other Judges, if Prophets at all, are Prophets only in action. They were "clothed with the Divine Spirit," or "struck" by it, but only to perform acts of strength, not to utter words of wisdom. It is at the close of the period of the Judges that the office of Prophet first becomes not merely an oc- casional manifestation, but a fixed institution in the Jewish Church. Samuel is the true founder of the Order of Prophets. "Until Samuel the prophet," "From Samuel and those that follow after." "Samuel and the Prophets," are expres- sions which exactly agree with the facts of the his- tory. In his time the name of "Prophet," (Nabi) first came to use, in place of the ancient and less ex- alted title of "Seer" (Roeh), or "Gazer" (Hozeh). In his time first appear the companies of "the sons of the prophets." From his time the succession con- tinues, in every generation, unbroken down to Mala- chi. He, like Moses, appears not alone, but as the centre of a circle of Prophets; but, unlike Moses, of a circle some of whom were as highly endowed with prophetic gifts as he himself. Without dwelling on the doubtful case of his father Elkanah and his mother Hannah, there was certainly Gad, Nathan, David, Saul, and Heman, Samuel's grandson, amongst those who, if they were not actually educated by him, all marked the epoch of his appearance. Amongst these, Samuel, Gad, and Heman, as if still belonging in a measure to the older state of things are called "Seers," whereas Nathan and David bear, without variation, the new name of "Prophet." (3.) From the two most remarkable of this age, Nathan and David, flowed in all probability, the two prophetic schools, which never en- tirely ceased out of the Jewish Church as long as the prophetic gift lasted at all, but which may be no- ticed especially on their first appearance. David, in continental nations is always termed not "the Royal Psalmist," but "the Prophet King," and in Mussulman tradition is especially known as "the Prophet of God," as Abraham is the "Friend," and Mahomet "the Apostle" of God. He gave to his prophetic utterances the peculiar charm of song and music, which has procured him amongst ourselves the name of "the Psalmist," and to his prophecies and those that are formed on their model, the name of "Psalms," or "songs." Nathan (who probably is the first "seer" that received distinctly the name of "Prophet"), in one of the only two prophecies di- rectly ascribed to him, gives it in the form of an apo- logue or proverb, that of the ewe-lamb; and being as he was the main supporter, if not instructor, of Solo- mon, may be considered as the first example of that kind of moral instruction in which the gifts of Solo- mon, though not expressly called prophetic, found their chief vent. (4.) It was in the disorders at the close of Solo- mon's reign that the Prophetic Order as- sumed an importance in the state such as it had never acquired before. Samuel had transferred the crown from Saul to David; Nathan from Adonijah to Solomon. But Ahijah, in transferring it from Re- hoboam to Jeroboam, created not merely a new dynasty, but a new kingdom. The northern king- dom was, during the first period of its existence, the kingdom of the Prophets. The Priests took refuge in Judah. But the Prophets, for the first two centuries after the disruption, were almost entirely confined to Israel. All the seats of prophetic instruction (with the possible exception of Ramah) were within the kingdom of Samaria, — Bethel, Jericho, Gilgal, Car- mel. We hear of these by fifties, and by hundreds at once, and amongst these the names of many have come down to us: Ahijah of Shiloh, Iddo "the seer," Jehu the son of Hanani, Obadiah, Micaiah, Oded, and, chiefest of all, Elijah and Elisha. A few Proph- ets of the southern kingdom are mentioned as con- temporary with these: Arariah, Hanani, "the seer," Eliezer. But neither in numbers nor in influence can these be compared with those who had their sphere of action in the north, of whom Elijah stands forth as the great representative. In this arduous position, sometimes at variance, sometimes in close harmony, with the Kings of Israel, they maintained the true religion in the northern tribes, at times when in Judah it was crushed to the ground, and when in Israel it had to struggle against severe persecution or sluggish apathy. And by their free passage to and fro between the rival kingdoms, and their endeavors on both sides to keep up a sentiment of humanity, the Prophets of this epoch must be regarded as im- portant instruments for upholding not only the relig- ious but the national unity. (5.) This is the great epoch of the Prophetic action as distinct from the Prophetic writings of the Jewish Church. It is true that during this time the main historical literature of the country was formed under the prophetic guidance. We have distinct notices of the works in which Sam- uel, Gad, and Nathan described the life of David, and in which Nathan and Iddo describe the lives of Solomon and Jeroboam. These unfortunately have all perished. Their historical as well as their poeti- cal writings, no less than those of the still earlier period of Moses and the Judges, are handed down in the compositions or compilations of others. The writ- ings of David alone have been preserved in an inde- pendent and original form. But about the time of the destruction of the northern kingdom, a new phase passed over the Prophetic Order. Probably in con- sequence of the increasing cultivation of the people that had set in during the reign of Solomon, and had gradually penetrated all classes, the Prophets, or their immediate disciples, seem to have committed to writing the greater part of their prophecies. Of these written prophecies, the earliest is probably that of Joel; and in him the man of action is still visible athwart the written record. Close following upon him, are the last Prophets of the declining king- dom of the north, — Jonah (whether as appearing in the history or in the book of which he is the sub- ject), Hosea, and Amos. Immediately succeeding to these, but now confined to the southern kingdom, rises the great school of Prophets, under Uzziah and his three successors, Isaiah, Micah, Nahum, and "Zechariah, who had understand- ing in the visions of God." Following upon these, in fainter strains, as the external dangers increased, and the internal strength of the kingdom declined, were Zephaniah, probably Habakkuk, Obadiah, and the nameless "seer" or "seers" in the reign of Manasseh. The whole of this series is concluded by the most mournful, and in some respects the greatest of the older Prophets, Jeremiah, with the circle of inferior Prophets round him, – Hulda, the Prophetess, Uri- jah and Hanan. (6.) Jeremiah is the last of the Prophetic Order who is actively concerned in moving the affairs of the State and Church. In the Prophets of the Captivity and of the Return, the character of authors goes far to supersede the character of their older mission. Their works are for the most part, as those of their predecessors had never been, arranged in chronological sequence, and their style becomes continuous and fixed. Amongst these, three names are conspicuous, — Ezekiel, who connects the close of the monarchy with the commencement of the Cap- tivity; the Evangelical Prophet, who heralds the return from captivity; and Daniel, whatever be the exact date and character we assign to the book which bears his name. The group following the Captivity consists of Haggai, Zechariah, and the unknown "messenger," whom we call Mala- chi. These three, probably, alone of the books of the Old Testament, stand in the canons in the order in which they were originally published. The only other indications of the prophetic spirit in this period are amongst the Samaritans, — "the Prophetess Noadiah," and "the rest of the Prophets." Ezra is once called a Prophet in one of the latter books to which his name is affixed; but this is not his usual designation. (7.) With Malachi, accordingly, the succession which had continued unbroken from the time of Samuel terminates, and a host of legends, Jewish and Mussul- man, commemorate the extinction of the prophetic gift. "We see not our signs: there is no more any prophet." It is true that the Books of Baruch, Wisdom, and Ecclesiasticus, lay claim, more or less, both to the prophetic form and the prophetic character. Still the impassioned poetic flow of the earlier Prophets is greatly abated, and the name is rarely used. The Religion of the Old Dispensation was fully revealed and constituted — prophets were not needed to declare it, but "scribes" to expound and defend it. It is this long silence or deterioration of the gift that renders its resuscitation more remarkable. It was "in the days of Herod the kind," that the voice of a Prophet was once more heard. We shall never understand the true appearance of the Baptist, or of him whose forerunner he was, nor the continuity of the Old and New Testaments, unless we bear in mind that the period of the Christian era was the culminating point of the Prophetic ages of the Jewish Church. "The word of God came unto John the son of Zechariah," as it had come before to Isaiah the son of Amoz. "The people counted him as a prophet." "He was a prophet, and more than a prophet." In appearance, in language, in character, he was what Elijah had been in the reign of Ahab. And yet he was only the messenger of a Prophet greater than himself. The whole public min- istry of our Lord was that of a Prophet. He was much more than this. But it was as a Prophet that He acted and spoke. It was this which gave Him His hold on the mind of the nation. He entered, as it were naturally, on an office vacant, but already ex- isting. His discourses were all, in the highest sense of the word, "prophecies." And, when He was withdrawn from the earth, He, like Moses and Samuel, left a circle of Prophets behind Him, through whom the sacred gift was continued and diffused. It was one of the expected marks of the Messiah's kingdom that the prophetic in- spiration should become universal. This expectation S. Peter saw realized on the day of Pentecost; and from S.Paul's allusions, it is evident that the posses- sion of the gift throughout the Christian community was the rule, not the exception. Some there were more eminent than others, whose names, sayings, or writings, have been preserved to us. Agabus, Simeon, Niger, Lucius, Manaen, Philip's daughters, Joseph, who derived from this gift the name by which he was usu- ally known, of "Barnabas," Saul, who was called Paul, John; and to these we may probably add, though not expressly bearing the name, Cephas or Peter, Jacob or James the Younger, Judas or Thaddeus, and the au- thor of the Epistle to the Hebrews. With John, as far as we know, the name and the thing ceased. There have been great men to whom the title has been given in later times. There have been others who have claimed it for themselves. But in the peculiar Bibli- cal, Hebrew sense of the word, and certainly within the circle of the Jewish Church, S. John was the Last of the Prophets.
from The History of the Jewish Church, Vol. I : Abraham to Samuel,Lecture XIX: The History of the Prophetical Order. by Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1879, pp. 457-473
From the authentic hadiths, we see that Muhamed had some kind of seizures while having the revelations, and had a lot of lucid dreams, he may have had Temporal Lobe Epilepsy or some other similar disorder, and he always took the dreams for some kind of revelations. The first attribution of epileptic seizures to Muhammad comes from the 8th century Byzantine historian Theophanes who wrote that Muhammad’s wife "was very much grieved that she, being of noble descent, was tied to such a man, who was not only poor but epileptic as well." The most famous epileptic of the 19th century, Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821–1881) wrote that epileptic attacks have an inspirational quality; he said they are “a supreme exaltation of emotional subjectivity” in which time stands still. Dostoyevsky claimed that his own attacks were similar to those of Muhammad: "Probably it was of such an instant, that the epileptic Mahomet was speaking when he said that he had visited all the dwelling places of Allah within a shorter time than it took for his pitcher full of water to empty itself." https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_Muhammad#Psychological_and_medical_condition https://sunnah.com/bukhari/91/1 At first, the revelation was in the form of lucid dreams https://sunnah.com/bukhari/91/61 He sees extremely violent lucid dreams of angels smashing the head of people and removing the skin from their faces https://sunnah.com/bukhari/56/7 He starts having a lucid dream while a women is removing lice from his head, he took it for a revelation https://sunnah.com/bukhari/63/113 He had a lucid dream where he flew to the seventh heaven on a flying donkey and met prophets, he really believed it https://sunnah.com/bukhari/92/11 Lucid dream where he saw that the gate of Gog and Magog have been pierced, he took it seriously as a revelation and a true event https://sunnah.com/bukhari/91/1 The prophet tried to commit suicide by throwing himself from the top of a Mountain https://sunnah.com/bukhari/59/28 The prophet was the only one hallucinating Gabriel, the others present couldnt see him https://sunnah.com/muslim/11/132 The prophet is the only one hearing Gabriel https://sunnah.com/bukhari/21/14 The prophet hallucinates that he had a fight with a demon trying to stop his prayer https://sunnah.com/bukhari/76/79 The prophet hallucinate having sex with his wives, but it wasnt true https://sunnah.com/bukhari/78/238 The prophet hallucinate Gabriel sitting on a throne between the sky and the earth https://sunnah.com/urn/45340 The prophet hallucinates Gabriel with 600 wings https://sunnah.com/muslim/4/169 The prophet hallucinates that he had met Jinns and that he read Quran to them https://sunnah.com/urn/46060 While getting the revelation , he moves his lips unvoluntarily https://sunnah.com/muslim/15/8 He receives revelation while covered and producing a sound of Camel https://sunnah.com/bukhari/1/2 The revelation comes to him like the sound of a Bell, and sweat drips from his head https://sunnah.com/bukhari/63/55 The prophet fell unconscious on the ground with his eyes open https://sunnah.com/bukhari/77/175 The prophet hates colored pictures, because the images keep coming in his mind and he cant control this, like some form of shcyzofrenia https://sunnah.com/muslim/1/319 He Hallucinates that two men in white came, opened his abdomen and washed his heart He saw a lof ot other things, like the prophecies about hell, heaven, the hadith where he saw the east and west, all the times he saw gabriel.... His wife khadija convinced him that he was not crazy nor posessed, she convinced him that he was a prophet, and her cousin Waraqa Ibn Nawfal helped her in this task. In a story in the biography, when he was seeing Gabriel, she tried to test if its a demon or an angel, she showed him what she got between her legs, and the hallucination stopped, then muhamed concluded that its an angel, because demons dont flee when seeing a cunt. But why did this hallucinations start only at such an old age ? Maybe because he spent too much time at the cave of Hiraa, and some day, a little seism created some sort of little cracks in the mountain cave, and toxic volcanic gas got to him ? Because the Mountain Al-Nour containing the Hiraa cave is Volcanic ! And Gabriel pressing him so that he couldnt breath is one of the symptoms of hallucinations and asphyxiation from toxic gas ! The more recent basaltic lava fields and volcanoes date from 10 million years ago up to the historic eruptions. They lie along a 900 km line within the shield that extends south from the Great Nafud Desert, through the cities of Al Madinah and Makkah, and then as far south along the coastal plain as Al Qunfudah. https://sgs.org.sa/English/Earthquakes/Pages/Volcanoes.aspx In fact, we have a similar prophetic hallucinations scenario because of toxic gas inhallation : The Pythia was the name of the high priestess of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi who also served as the oracle, commonly known as the Oracle of Delphi. The Pythia was established at the latest in the 8th century BC, and was widely credited for her prophecies inspired by being filled by the spirit of the god, in this case Apollo. The Pythian priestess emerged pre-eminent by the end of 7th century BC and would continue to be consulted until the 4th century AD. During this period the Delphic Oracle was the most prestigious and authoritative oracle among the Greeks, and she was without doubt the most powerful woman of the classical world. There have been many attempts to find a scientific explanation for the Pythia's inspiration. However, most commonly, these refer to an observation made by Plutarch, who presided as high priest at Delphi for several years, who stated that her oracular powers appeared to be associated with vapors from the Kerna spring waters that flowed under the temple. It has often been suggested that these vapors may have been hallucinogenic gases. Recent geological investigations have shown that gas emissions from a geologic chasm in the earth could have inspired the Delphic Oracle to "connect with the divine." Some researchers suggest the possibility that ethylene gas caused the Pythia's state of inspiration. Traces of ethylene have been found in the waters of the Castallian spring, which is now largely diverted for the town water supply of the town of modern Delphi. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pythia#Fumes_and_vapors
2018.04.20 01:56 bryonadams1Code tweet of @9_3x09 in disappearance, blackdog808292 and zeaux
I 'll open a thread about this because I feel it's necessary. Some of you might remember this thread: https://voat.co/v/pizzagate/2194502 (As voat doesn't work right now I 'll give this thread about blackdog808292, for the people not knowing who blackdog is: https://yuki.la/x/19094078 ) Here are an article about the case and a follow-up article: The strange tweet of @9_3x09 regarding a disappearance The ZEAUX_CXT ARG ended, strange connections left? A long story short: A woman went missing in the Netherlands, she unfortunately was found dead later. The code account didn't seem to be involved, but there are some strange things going on. During her disappearance, the Twitter account @9_3x09 sent a tweet to the police with "a tip": Coded tip This was a code which was sent to the police. Someone decoded this with rot13 and found out that the tweet said: Hier is een tip, Dutch for “Here is a tip”. The @9_3x09 account later disappeared. It had tweets which linked it to blackdog808292 on YouTube and @808292bd on Twitter. It also had links to @zeaux_cxt on Twitter, the codes of ZEAUX_CXT ment to put awareness on Elsagate, were supposedly used by copycat accounts like blackdog808292 and @9_3x09. Now, this might be a coincidence, but the date that @9_3x09 sent out this tweet connecting the ZEAUX_CXT codes to the disappearance of Anne Faber was the 5th of October. This same day, the bike of Anne was found in a lake which had a statue of Demeter / Ceres standing there: Dutchnews.nl 112apeldoorn The statue of Demeter The tweet was sent approximately 45 minutes after this news came out. Although this can be a coincidence, a black dog (blackdog) was also Cerebus, the guard of Hades: Cerebus The bike was found near a statue of Demeter / Ceres, this was the daughter of Saturn: Ceres Wikipedia about Demeter: "Demeter's virgin daughter Persephone was abducted to the underworld by Hades. Demeter searched for her ceaselessly, preoccupied with her loss and her grief. The seasons halted; living things ceased their growth, then began to die." An account called Saturn is in the code network which @9_3x09 was linked to. Saturn is the father of Ceres / Demeter. It could be found interacting with the original account where the ARG started on the discussion page, Stuart Silverstone: Stuart Silverstone discussion page Is it possible that @9_3x09 tried to link the disappearance of Anne Faber to this code network because her bike was found near a statue of Ceres? It would explain why the tweet went out the exact same day. We don't know yet where Michael P. hid the body first, so we can't say with certitude that he was wrong about the location which he mentioned. InvestigatingYoutube was contacted about this, as @9_3x09 supposedly was part of it, but he was taken out of InvestigatingYoutube after this incident. According to PK17, ZEAUX_CXT, @9_3x09 stepped forward to the police and admitted his mistake, but even InvestigatingYoutube doesn't know what happened with @9_3x09 afterwards so it's strange that he has this knowledge as it isn't known anywhere if he even admitted his mistake. Apart from this we have the Mahomet Dogar account which seems related to blackdog808292 in some way. Several friends of Mahomet work for the same company as James Posey, a person with which he is friends who might be related to Donna Posey. As a side-thing, I found out today that the channel Donna McCool with the video called Donna Posey which led to the video with the comments of James Latham (blackdog), in fact seems to be a video with an Elsa costume and a Spiderman costume which is visible if you pause the last second: https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=53iEru0Y1dM I also don't get why that one video is called Donna Posey... And there is also this, could be nothing though: She was part of the theater group Het Huis Utrecht. I was looking into the Twitter account of this theater group, which can be found here: http://twitter.com/hethuisutrecht?s=09 One of the followers is this account is @wizardbadvery, in which the title seems to have Elsagate related terms, just like Bad Baby. For some reason the words seem reversed here, Wizard Bad Very instead of Very Bad Wizard. https://s9.postimg.cc/ip6vwp30f/IMG_20180405_173021_526.jpg https://s9.postimg.cc/45zqv2k3j/IMG_20180317_225203_252.jpg The profile itself has a link to a website about AI and DeepMind. The profile picture is a picture of a panda. The reason why I post this is because I want your feedback. This is all too strange and seemingly coincidental, at one hand it might be a hoax, at the other hand it is and seems too complicated. It seems very sophisticated. Is there more behind this? It looks like this consists of a whole bunch of rabbitholes leading to other rabbitholes, it definitely doesn't end as being a kiddy ARG by some band for Elsagate, or other people started messing with the original ARG.
Salut. J'ai posté ce texte à l'origine sur un autre plus petit sub dont je tairai le nom. Je pensai pas développer autant à la base, mais du coup voilà, je me suis dit que ça pouvait en intéresser certains et peut-être ouvrir un débat. Je serai ravi de donner plus de détails sur certains points précis et surtout, ça me ferait assez plaisir d'avoir le point de vue de quelqu'un qui s'y est aussi plongé. Alors cet été, après l'égorgement du vieux prêtre, je me suis décidé à enfin plonger dans la lecture de ces trois fameux bouquins qui, bien qu'ignorés voire méprisés par la plupart des gens, semblent encore à l'origine de tant de tapage de nos jours. J'en pouvais plus, fallait que je me fasse mon avis. Je veux bien sûr parler de la Torah, du Nouveau testament et du Coran. Vous l'aurez compris, j'ai pas eu le courage d'achever le cœur de l'ancien testament de par le volume de texte en question, mais surtout parce que ça me paraissait moins pertinent par rapport à aujourd'hui. Bon, autant vous dire que c'est une expérience assez intense dont il est assez dur de se remettre, surtout en ce qui concerne le dernier ouvrage en date. Franchement, j'avais entendu tout et son contraire mais pour le coup ça m'a mis une sacré tarte. Le contraste entre les trois livres est très net et a clarifié pour moi beaucoup de choses sur la situation mondiale, pour le dire vite. Les recherches ultérieures n'ont fait qu'aggraver ma situation. Je vais essayer de faire ça à la louche parce que sinon je vais y passer des heures. Ce sera assez succinct et subjectif donc. Disons que le début de l'ancien testament, Torah donc, débute comme on sait avec une partie qui semble mythologique et plutôt symbolique, pas inintéressant à mon sens et je trouve que sur le sujet les analyses de Terrence McKenna, plutôt barrées, sont à survoler juste pour le plaisir. S'ensuit une histoire assez spécifique d'un destin de peuple, guidé par une voix qui parle successivement soit directement, soit à travers des anges, apparitions, hallucinations à une lignée de chefs de clan dont Moïse. Dieu a décidé, on ne sait trop pourquoi, de mettre toutes les chances sur ce clan-ci et de le guider à travers plusieurs conflits, conquêtes etc. Le peuple juif en question n'a de cesse de déroger aux indications données, de sombrer dans la paganisme et autres interdictions dès qu'il en a l'occasion. Dieu se fâche sur Moïse qui se demande un peu ce qu'il fout là mais continue de faire son truc. Le peuple juif est constamment puni puis sauvé par la volonté divine et écrase petit à petit toutes les autres tribus. Une grosse partie est très très technique, concernant la loi divine et les fameuses tables qui, ce que j'ignorai, détaillent d'infinies prescriptions rituelles complètement improbables. On va détailler pendant de long chapitres la façon dont il faut couper telle et telle planche à telle longueur pour faire un coffre avec telle statuette ici et là, telle quantité d'encens, les parties des animaux à bouffer ou pas etc. C'est vraiment d'un niveau de détail ahurissante et le coté rigoriste est ici déjà très frappant. Le reste sera des histoires dans la continuité de ça, guerres, prises de pouvoir, vie de personnages ayant des révélations ou des contacts plus ou moins directs avec Dieu. Perso je me suis arrêté à Samuel. Après il y a aussi des psaumes etc donc plus poétique. Le style est assez narratif dans l'ensemble et varie pas mal car on est sur plusieurs dizaines d'auteurs qui prennent le relais, ça s'étale sur plusieurs siècles. Certaines rares allusions sont déjà faites à la venue d'un messie. Ce qui ressort pour moi, c'est le coté hyper strict de la loi divine et le choix semblant arbitraire sur ce peuple qui demeure dépositaire d'une destinée à prendre le pas sur tous les autres. La persécution perpétuelle du peuple en question est déjà une donnée essentielle. Constamment plongé dans les plus atroces souffrances, esclavages, famines, quasi génocides etc, le peuple juif ressort toujours vainqueur par la grâce divine. Ensuite, nouveau testament. En lisant les évangiles, ce qui m'a surtout surpris à vrai dire, c'est de réaliser à quel point ça résonnait en moi, et surtout à quel point ça résonnerait probablement en n'importe qui de mon entourage ou partageant ma culture au sens très très large. Je me suis rendu compte que bien qu'athée, j'étais extrêmement imprégné par ces façons de penser, ramenées à aujourd'hui bien sûr car évidemment beaucoup d'éléments datent et il est pas facile de se retrouver dans tout. En tout cas, ça m'a paru beaucoup moins étranger que les délires technico-mystiques du judaïsme. Donc voilà, un type nait de façon chelou, apparemment sa mère est vierge donc ça choque un peu tout le monde mais surtout le mec a des pouvoirs magiques. Il est intéressant de noter que Jésus lui même ne se définit jamais comme fils de Dieu, seulement quelques ploucs étonnés par sa magie l'appellent comme ça, lui se dit Fils de l'Homme. Bon, premier gros miracle il va remplir des jarres de vin pour faire la teuf, donc déjà bon point pour ma part. Ensuite, pas mal de soins sur des malades comme on sait, pêches miraculeuses et tout le bordel. Le paradoxe du personnage tient à ce qu'il semble investi d'un pouvoir carrément divin et direct, tout en réfutant une bonne partie des anciennes règles. En gros il va mettre une plus grosse responsabilité sur les individus eux même, plutôt que de les laisser s'en remettre à des lois arbitraires. Contrairement aux personnages de l'ancien testament, il va jamais rapporter des dialogues qu'il aurait eu avec Dieu, il parle lui même et prend directement les gens à partie, avec des paraboles parfois bizarres. Il y a un coté très pro-minorité, progressif presque, dans les actes qu'il réalise et on sent bien que la plupart sont juste là pour appuyer ses propos. En gros, met toi à la place des autres, tout ça. Les putes, les pauvres, les étrangers, bref. Tout ça me fait dire avec certitude que le développement actuel de l'idéologie mondialiste, humaniste, multiculturelle, socialiste, progressiste et toutes ces branches du même arbre, prennent définitivement racine dans ce tournant radical d'avec la tradition juive. En gros, la mise en avant de l'individu, Dieu incarné en l'homme étant le symbole de ça. Je sais plus qui disais que le monde était plein d'idées chrétiennes devenues folles, mais c'est exactement ça. Il est aussi intéressant de remarquer que les pouvoirs psychiques de Jésus ne lui dont pas exclusifs. Quiconque reste à son contact assez longtemps et s'imprègne de ses enseignements obtiens petit à petit les même pouvoirs. Détail intéressant d'uns scène bien connue, lorsqu'il marche sur l'eau, il demande à un de ses potes de le rejoindre et le mec marche sur l'eau pareil jusqu'à ce qu'il ait un coup de flip et plouf ça fonctionne plus. Jésus lui dit que c'est parce qu'il a arrêté de croire en lui. Je me demande si le personnage de Jésus n'est pas, en un sens, une métaphore de l'action de la conscience sur la matière ou un truc du genre. En gros ta réalité dépend de ce que tu penses, croit etc. Si on est assez barré dans ces trucs, on peut tracer des liens avec la philosophie orientale ou la physique quantique et ses interprétations new-age mais je m'y risquerai pas. Jésus veut pas vraiment imposer son délire par la force, juste par la parole et le pouvoir de l'esprit. Il refusera même de monter des groupes armés après que certains disciples lui proposent. C'est pourquoi il crèvera comme un con sans opposer de résistance, de même que plusieurs de ses disciples par la suite. Donc une fois crevé, ressuscité, abducté, c'est ses potes qui prennent le relais et qui vont prêcher le truc à Rome, certains se font dézinguer mais au fur et à mesure la mayonnaise prend. Après les évangiles, ce sont surtout des lettres de ces principaux prédicateurs du nouveau christianisme qui exposent leurs idées à différents peuples avec lesquels ils ont déjà été en contact ou non, qui suivent le truc de loin pour voir comment ça se déroule etc mais toujours en mode pacifique apparemment. Pour finir, la crème de la crème, franchement le meilleur livre à mon sens, l'apocalypse de St Jean. Alors ça ! Pour le coup, on revient un peu à l'esprit du tout début, genèse etc, avec un coté ultra symbolique mais alors là carrément psychédélique. Vraiment, l'idée qu'il y ait eu des substances impliquées ou au moins des états de conscience modifiées dans l'histoire est difficile à ne pas être maintenue après avoir lu ça. En gros le mec est en exil sur une île déserte, et au bout d'un moment il a des visions de dingue, si vous avez déjà pris un psychédélique en dose suffisante et fermé les yeux sur de la musique hypnotique c'est à peu près le même genre de trucs. Vision sur vision, des bestioles et des structures mathématiques dans un espèce de chaos baroque généralisé mais hyper construit, avec des nations entières qui meurent et s'unissent et se défont et tout ça à deux mille à l'heure. Mais assez descriptif, subjectif, pas vraiment menaçant pour le coup, dans le style je veux dire. Franchement si vous aimez la littérature un peu tripée je vous conseille de lire au moins ça c'est vraiment fun et pas très long. Bon bon. Comme vous le devinez, on arrive au dernier en date, celui qu'il me tardait le plus d'aborder évidemment mais que je me sentais pas de lire sans avoir de quoi il retournait dans les autres. Mesdames et messieurs les mécréants, le très saint Coran ! Bon, autant le dire tout de suite, c'est l'expérience de lecture la plus bizarre que j'ai jamais faite. Le truc est très très mal écrit, à tous les niveaux. C'est vraiment étonnant. Vous allez me dire, oui mais traduction, alors peut-être mais la bible aussi est traduite. Pour le coup j'ai utilisé la traduction Albouraq, traduction de référence conseillée par tous les musulmans. Petit détail insignifiant mais c'est bourré de fautes de typo et de frappe mais c'est pas très important. Ce qui est vraiment particulier, c'est que là, contrairement aux livres de la bible, c'est une adresse directe et non une narration. Le Coran est considéré comme une révélation directe, d'Allah à Gabriel à Mahomet. Donc du premier au dernier verset, tout est dit par Dieu lui même et c'est très important de comprendre ça, c'est même le point principal qui fait la différence avec les autres. Sans parler du contenu, le style est extrêmement agressif. Beaucoup d'impératif, de prise à partie directe du lecteur, d'exaltations et de menaces de châtiments divins, de promesses de plaisir et de bonheur. C'est très très littéral et j'ai eu du mal à trouver matière à interprétation symbolique. On trouve certains envolées poétiques, de descriptions naturelles plutôt belles mais c'est assez rare. Beaucoup de prescriptions, d'impératifs concernant la Rakat (prière quotidienne) et la Zakat (impôt) mais aussi certains trucs plus précis concernant la justice, la politique, l'économie, les relations familiales et bien sûr la guerre. Cela dit, c'est beaucoup moins détaillé que dans la Torah, mais ça y renvoie souvent en faisant allusion à la loi divine déjà révélée à Moïse en son temps. Ce qui m'a beaucoup irrité, c'est à quel point tout est répété des dizaines de fois. Littéralement les mêmes versets qui apparaissent à pleins d'endroit différents, les mêmes injonctions répétées autrement, les mêmes petits morceaux de narration décousues répétées ici et là. Pas mal de petites histoires viennent de la bible, on parle de la genèse, de Noé, de Moïse et même de Jésus. Mais on prend soin de bien expliquer que les juifs et les chrétiens ont été égarés et qu'il faut les ramener dans le droit chemin. Tellement de répétitions ! C'est vraiment troublant. Mine de rien, il y a un coté hypnotique et difficile à lâcher même si c'est insupportable car en tant que lecteur non musulman tu es sans cesse discriminé pour ne pas dire piétiné à chaque page. Ma théorie est que dans le texte, en arabe, il y a un coté très très musical en envoutant (on peut entendre ça dans les prières d'ailleurs) qui donne à ces répétitions un coté volontairement psychédélique. Autre point à noter : le bouquin a été révélé à Mahomet tout au long de sa vie, alors qu'autour de lui, il rassemblait de plus en plus de fidèles, s'armait et devenait de plus en plus militaire dans son approche prosélyte et sa volonté de conquête. Par conséquent, chronologiquement (dans l'ordre de révélation des sourates) on va du plus soft, comprenant quand même des menaces constantes d'enfer et de châtiment divin, à des injonctions de plus en plus directes au combat, à la conversion forcée, meurtre etc. La différence se fait notamment sentir après l'Hégire qui est le moment où ils ont tous bougés de la Mecque à Médine. Mais ! Ce qui est vraiment, vraiment bizarre et que pour ma part je trouve presque malhonnête, c'est que les sourates ne sont pas rangées dans l'ordre chronologique ! Elles sont classées par ordre de longueur… Ainsi, toute la chronologie est mélangée n'importe comment. Certains versets se contredisent, et en principe, un verset révélé en dernier prévaut sur un plus ancien. Déjà ça pose problème sachant qu'on est de plus en plus bourrin, mais en plus c'est hyper confus car tout est mixé. Le titre des sourates laisserait présager des thématiques propres, comme des thèmes par chapitre, elles ont des noms d'animaux, d'objets, de plantes etc. En fait, que dalle, c'est toujours les mêmes envolées, quasi interchangeables. En fait, ça fait relativement sens d'avoir un bouquin pareil 600 ans après la révélation de l'apocalypse, dans la narration. C'est comme si la voix de Dieu, après avoir parlé à travers des chefs, s'était incarnée directement dans un messie puis laissé le truc se propager, puis signalé la fin imminente, et là on a le droit à la voix de Dieu en direct, qui s'emballe à fond, limite psychotique à mesure que l'échéance se rapproche, comme si vraiment ça urgeait. En gros Dieu qui se radicalise quoi. En trois phases, on est passé d'une vision rigoriste exclusive et guerrière à un switch complet plus libéral progressiste disons, prosélyte, mondialiste et pacifiste, puis à un retour à des valeurs rigoristes mais en gardant le prosélytisme mondialiste et revenant à l'apologie du combat armé. Même si évidemment l'influence directe des textes sur les individus contemporains est toute relative, j'en arrive à me dire que, si la direction que l'occident a pris est à ce point, comme je le pense, un développement monstrueux de la pensée chrétienne et appliquée à la mondialisation technologique, il me semble logique que la même influence d'une culture juive et musulmane soit très intense bien qu'inconsciente dans le comportement collectif des communautés qui en émanent. Entendez par là le coté fermé, communautaire, érudit, secret mais en même temps toujours à la pointe de la communauté juive, et, à notre grand dam si j'ose dire ainsi, le coté prosélyte, volonté de conquête, affirmation extravertie voire imposition et revendications des normes religieuses dans l'islam. Voilà c'était un peu long, merci d'avoir tout lu si c'est le cas, n'hésitez pas à rebondir sur tel ou tel point ou à critiquer librement, je suis ouvert à la discussion. Je précise aussi n'être membre d'aucune communauté religieuse. La paix sur vous quand même.
Salut. Alors cet été, après l'égorgement du vieux prêtre, je me suis décidé à enfin plonger dans la lecture de ces trois fameux bouquins qui, bien qu'ignorés voire méprisés par la plupart des gens, semblent encore à l'origine de tant de tapage de nos jours. J'en pouvais plus, fallait que je me fasse mon avis. Je veux bien sûr parler de la Torah, du Nouveau testament et du Coran. Vous l'aurez compris, j'ai pas eu le courage d'achever le cœur de l'ancien testament de par le volume de texte en question, mais surtout parce que ça me paraissait moins pertinent par rapport à aujourd'hui. Bon, autant vous dire que c'est une expérience assez intense dont il est assez dur de se remettre, surtout en ce qui concerne le dernier ouvrage en date. Franchement, j'avais entendu tout et son contraire mais pour le coup ça m'a mis une sacré tarte. Le contraste entre les trois livres est très net et a clarifié pour moi beaucoup de choses sur la situation mondiale, pour le dire vite. Les recherches ultérieures n'ont fait qu'aggraver ma situation. Bref, je vais pas vous faire un résumé sauf si vous me le demandez explicitement, mais en gros je me demandai si des gens ici avaient une certaine expérience avec l'un ou l'autre de ces livres, et éventuellement entamer une discussion à ce propos. Si vous avez des questions quelconques je suis ouvert et ne demande qu'à partager. Je précise aussi n'être membre d'aucune communauté religieuse. La paix sur vous quand même. EDIT : Je vais essayer de faire ça à la louche parce que sinon je vais y passer des heures. Ce sera assez succinct et subjectif donc. Disons que le début de l'ancien testament, Torah donc, débute comme on sait avec une partie qui semble mythologique et plutôt symbolique, pas inintéressant à mon sens et je trouve que sur le sujet les analyses de Terrence McKenna, plutôt barrées, sont à survoler juste pour le plaisir. S'ensuit une histoire assez spécifique d'un destin de peuple, guidé par une voix qui parle successivement soit directement, soit à travers des anges, apparitions, hallucinations à une lignée de chefs de clan dont Moïse. Dieu a décidé, on ne sait trop pourquoi, de mettre toutes les chances sur ce clan-ci et de le guider à travers plusieurs conflits, conquêtes etc. Le peuple juif en question n'a de cesse de déroger aux indications données, de sombrer dans la paganisme et autres interdictions dès qu'il en a l'occasion. Dieu se fâche sur Moïse qui se demande un peu ce qu'il fout là mais continue de faire son truc. Le peuple juif est constamment puni puis sauvé par la volonté divine et écrase petit à petit toutes les autres tribus. Une grosse partie est très très technique, concernant la loi divine et les fameuses tables qui, ce que j'ignorai, détaillent d'infinies prescriptions rituelles complètement improbables. On va détailler pendant de long chapitres la façon dont il faut couper telle et telle planche à telle longueur pour faire un coffre avec telle statuette ici et là, telle quantité d'encens, les parties des animaux à bouffer ou pas etc. C'est vraiment d'un niveau de détail ahurissante et le coté rigoriste est ici déjà très frappant. Le reste sera des histoires dans la continuité de ça, guerres, prises de pouvoir, vie de personnages ayant des révélations ou des contacts plus ou moins directs avec Dieu. Perso je me suis arrêté à Samuel. Après il y a aussi des psaumes etc donc plus poétique. Le style est assez narratif dans l'ensemble et varie pas mal car on est sur plusieurs dizaines d'auteurs qui prennent le relais, ça s'étale sur plusieurs siècles. Certaines rares allusions sont déjà faites à la venue d'un messie. Ce qui ressort pour moi, c'est le coté hyper strict de la loi divine et le choix semblant arbitraire sur ce peuple qui demeure dépositaire d'une destinée à prendre le pas sur tous les autres. La persécution perpétuelle du peuple en question est déjà une donnée essentielle. Constamment plongé dans les plus atroces souffrances, esclavages, famines, quasi génocides etc, le peuple juif ressort toujours vainqueur par la grâce divine. Ensuite, nouveau testament. En lisant les évangiles, ce qui m'a surtout surpris à vrai dire, c'est de réaliser à quel point ça résonnait en moi, et surtout à quel point ça résonnerait probablement en n'importe qui de mon entourage ou partageant ma culture au sens très très large. Je me suis rendu compte que bien qu'athée, j'étais extrêmement imprégné par ces façons de penser, ramenées à aujourd'hui bien sûr car évidemment beaucoup d'éléments datent et il est pas facile de se retrouver dans tout. En tout cas, ça m'a paru beaucoup moins étranger que les délires technico-mystiques du judaïsme. Donc voilà, un type nait de façon chelou, apparemment sa mère est vierge donc ça choque un peu tout le monde mais surtout le mec a des pouvoirs magiques. Il est intéressant de noter que Jésus lui même ne se définit jamais comme fils de Dieu, seulement quelques ploucs étonnés par sa magie l'appellent comme ça, lui se dit fils de l'homme. Bon, premier gros miracle il va remplir des jarres de vin pour faire la teuf, donc déjà bon point pour ma part. Ensuite, pas mal de soins sur des malades comme on sait, pêches miraculeuses et tout le bordel. Le paradoxe du personnage tient à ce qu'il semble investi d'un pouvoir carrément divin et direct, tout en réfutant une bonne partie des anciennes règles. En gros il va mettre une plus grosse responsabilité sur les individus eux même, plutôt que de les laisser s'en remettre à des lois arbitraires. Contrairement aux personnages de l'ancien testament, il va jamais rapporter des dialogues qu'il aurait eu avec Dieu, il parle lui même et prend directement les gens à partie, avec des paraboles parfois bizarres. Il y a un coté très pro-minorité, progressif presque, dans les actes qu'il réalise et on sent bien que la plupart sont juste là pour appuyer ses propos. En gros, met toi à la place des autres, tout ça. Les putes, les pauvres, les étrangers, bref. Tout ça me fait dire avec certitude que le développmeent actuel de l'idéologie mondialiste, humaniste, multiculturelle, socialiste, progressiste et toutes ces branches du même arbre, prennent définitivement racine dans ce tournant radical d'avec la tradition juive. En gros, la mise en avant de l'individu, Dieu incarné en l'homme étant le symbole de ça. Je sais plus qui disais que le monde était plein d'idées chrétiennes devenues folles, mais c'est exactement ça. Il est aussi intéressant de remarquer que les pouvoirs psychiques de Jésus ne lui dont pas exclusifs. Quiconque reste à son contact assez longtemps et s'imprègne de ses enseignements obtiens petit à petit les même pouvoirs. Détail intéressant d'uns scène bien connue, lorsqu'il marche sur l'eau, il demande à un de ses potes de le rejoindre et le mec marche sur l'eau pareil jusqu'à ce qu'il ait un coup de flip et plouf ça fonctionne plus. Je me demande si le personnage de Jésus n'est pas, en un sens, une métaphore de l'action de la conscience sur la matière ou un truc du genre. En gros ta réalité dépend de ce que tu penses, croit etc. Si on est assez barré dans ces trucs, on peut tracer des liens avec la philosophie orientale ou la physique quantique et ses interprétations new-age mais je m'y risquerai pas. Jésus veut pas vraiment imposer son délire par la force, juste par la parole et le pouvoir de l'esprit. Il refusera même de monter des groupes armés après que certains disciples lui proposent. C'est pourquoi il crèvera comme un con sans opposer de résistance, de même que plusieurs de ses disciples par la suite. Donc une fois crevé, ressuscité, abducté, c'est ses potes qui prennent le relais et qui vont prêcher le truc à Rome, certains se font dézinguer mais au fur et à mesure la mayonnaise prend. Après les évangiles, ce sont surtout des lettres de ces principaux prédicateurs du nouveau christianisme qui exposent leurs idées à différents peuples avec lesquels ils ont déjà été en contact ou non, qui suivent le truc de loin pour voir comment ça se déroule etc mais toujours en mode pacifique apparemment. Pour finir, la crème de la crème, franchement le meilleur livre à mon sens, l'apocalypse de St Jean. Alors ça ! Pour le coup, on revient un peu à l'esprit du tout début, genèse etc, avec un coté ultra symbolique mais alors là carrément psychédélique. Vraiment, l'idée qu'il y ait eu des substances impliquées ou au moins des états de conscience modifiées dans l'histoire est difficile à ne pas être maintenue après avoir lu ça. En gros le mec est en exil sur une île déserte, et au bout d'un moment il a des visions de dingue, si vous avez déjà pris un psychédélique en dose suffisante et fermé les yeux sur de la musique hypnotique c'est à peu près le même genre de trucs. Vision sur vision, des bestioles et des structures mathématiques dans un espèce de chaos baroque généralisé mais hyper construit, avec des nations entières qui meurent et s'unissent et se défont et tout ça à deux mille à l'heure. Mais assez descriptif, subjectif, pas vraiment menaçant pour le coup, dans le style je veux dire. Franchement si vous aimez la littérature un peu tripée je vous conseille de lire au moins ça c'est vraiment fun et pas très long. Bon bon. Comme vous le devinez, on arrive au dernier en date, celui qu'il me tardait le plus d'aborder évidemment mais que je me sentais pas de lire sans avoir de quoi il retournait dans les autres. Mesdames et messieurs les mécréants, le très saint Coran ! Bon, autant le dire tout de suite, c'est l'expérience de lecture la plus bizarre que j'ai jamais faite. Le truc est très très mal écrit, à tous les niveaux. C'est vraiment étonnant. Vous allez me dire, oui mais traduction, alors peut-être mais la bible aussi est traduite. Pour le coup j'ai utilisé la traduction Albouraq, traduction de référence conseillée par tous les musulmans. Petit détail insignifiant mais c'est bourré de fautes de typo et de frappe mais c'est pas très important. Ce qui est vraiment particulier, c'est que là, contrairement aux livres de la bible, c'est une adresse directe et non une narration. Le Coran est considéré comme une révélation directe, d'Allah à Gabriel à Mahomet. Donc du premier au dernier verset, tout est dit par Dieu lui même et c'est très important de comprendre ça, c'est même le point principal qui fait la différence avec les autres. Sans parler du contenu, le style est extrêmement agressif. Beaucoup d'impératif, de prise à partie directe du lecteur, d'exaltations et de menaces de châtiments divins, de promesses de plaisir et de bonheur. C'est très très littéral et j'ai eu du mal à trouver matière à interprétation symbolique. On trouve certains envolées poétiques, de descriptions naturelles plutôt belles mais c'est assez rare. Beaucoup de prescriptions, d'impératifs concernant la Rakat (prière quotidienne) et la Zakat (impôt) mais aussi certains trucs plus précis concernant la justice, la politique, l'économie, les relations familiales et bien sûr la guerre. Cela dit, c'est beaucoup moins détaillé que dans la Torah, mais ça y renvoie souvent en faisant allusion à la loi divine déjà révélée à Moïse en son temps. Ce qui m'a beaucoup irrité, c'est à quel point tout est répété des dizaines de fois. Littéralement les mêmes versets qui apparaissent à pleins d'endroit différents, les mêmes injonctions répétées autrement, les mêmes petits morceaux de narration décousues répétées ici et là. Pas mal de petites histoires viennent de la bible, on parle de la genèse, de Noé, de Moïse et même de Jésus. Mais on prend soin de bien expliquer que les juifs et les chrétiens ont été égarés et qu'il faut les ramener dans le droit chemin. Tellement de répétitions ! C'est vraiment troublant. Mine de rien, il y a un coté hypnotique et difficile à lâcher même si c'est insupportable car en tant que lecteur non musulman tu es sans cesse discriminé pour ne pas dire piétiné à chaque page. Ma théorie est que dans le texte, en arabe, il y a un coté très très musical en envoutant (on peut entendre ça dans les prières d'ailleurs) qui donne à ces répétitions un coté volontairement psychédélique. Autre point à noter : le bouquin a été écrit par Mahomet tout au long de sa vie, alors qu'autour de lui, il rassemblait de plus en plus de fidèles, s'armait et devenait de plus en plus militaire dans son approche prosélyte et sa volonté de conquête. Par conséquent, chronologiquement (dans l'ordre de révélation des sourates) on va du plus soft, comprenant quand même des menaces constantes d'enfer et de châtiment divin, à des injonctions de plus en plus directes au combat, à la conversion forcée, meurtre etc. La différence se fait notamment sentier après l'Hégire qui est le moment où ils ont tous bougés de la Mecque à Médine. Mais ! Ce qui est vraiment, vraiment bizarre et que pour ma part je trouve presque malhonnête, c'est que les sourates ne sont pas rangées dans l'ordre chronologique ! Elles sont classées par ordre de longueur… Ainsi, toute la chronologie est mélangée n'importe comment. Certains versets se contredisent, et en principe, un verset révélé en dernier prévaut sur un plus ancien. Déjà ça pose problème sachant qu'on est de plus en plus bourrin, mais en plus c'est hyper confus car tout est mixé. Le titre des sourates laisserait présager des thématiques propres, comme des thèmes par chapitre, elles ont des noms d'animaux, d'objets, de plantes etc. En fait, que dalle, c'est toujours les mêmes envolées, quasi interchangeables. En fait, ça fait relativement sens d'avoir un bouquin pareil 600 ans après la révélation de l'apocalypse, dans la narration. C'est comme si la voix de Dieu, après avoir parlé à travers des chefs, s'était incarnée directement dans un messie puis laissé le truc se propager, puis signalé la fin imminente, et là on a le droit à la voix de Dieu en direct, qui s'emballe à fond, limite psychotique à mesure que l'échéance se rapproche, comme si vraiment ça urgeait. En gros Dieu qui se radicalise quoi. En trois phases, on est passé d'une vision rigoriste exclusive et guerrière à un switch complet plus libéral progressiste disons, prosélyte, mondialiste et pacifiste, puis à un retour à des valeurs rigoristes mais en gardant le prosélytisme mondialiste et revenant à l'apologie du combat armé. Même si évidemment l'influence directe des textes sur les individus contemporains est toute relative, j'en arrive à me dire que, si la direction que l'occident a pris est à ce point, comme je le pense, un développement monstrueux de la pensée chrétienne et appliquée à la mondialisation technologique, il me semble logique que la même influence d'une culture juive et musulmane soit très intense bien qu'inconsciente dans le comportement collectif des communautés qui en émanent. Entendez par là le coté fermé, communautaire, érudit, secret mais en même temps toujours à la pointe de la communauté juive, et, à notre grand dam si j'ose dire ainsi, le coté prosélyte, volonté de conquête, affirmation extravertie des normes religieuses dans l'islam. Voilà c'était un peu long, merci d'avoir tout lu si c'est le cas, n'hésitez pas à rebondir sur tel ou tel point ou à critiquer librement, je suis ouvert à la discussion. J'espère que ça forme un tout à peu près cohérent.
2016.05.16 09:14 ShaunaDorothyLe droit de manifester en danger - A bas la chasse aux sorcières raciste des flics contre les islamistes ! (Décembre 2012)
https://archive.is/AIWJH Le Bolchévik nº 202 Décembre 2012 Le mouvement ouvrier doit défendre les jeunes de banlieue ! Nous reproduisons ci-après un tract de la LTF en date du 18 septembre contre l’interdiction par le gouvernement capitaliste Hollande/Valls de la manifestation islamique du 15 septembre, en protestation contre le brûlot raciste l’Innocence des musulmans. Quelques jours après cette interdiction, le journal « satirique » Charlie Hebdo (19 septembre) essayait de faire son beurre avec cette affaire en publiant à son tour une série de croquis bêtes et méchants contre les musulmans. Le rédacteur en chef du journal, Charb, qui publie aussi ses dessins à l’occasion dans le quotidien du PCF l’Humanité, se fendait dans ce numéro de Charlie Hebdo d’un billet spécial à propos d’un incident survenu à la Fête de l’Humanité le 15 septembre. Un groupe de militants de gauche, emmenés notamment par des militants des « Indigènes de la république », protestaient contre Caroline Fourest qui prenait part à un forum sur comment lutter contre le Front national. Fourest est une journaliste social-démocrate, ex de Charlie Hebdo, ex-éditorialiste du Monde et abonnée des plateaux télévisés. Elle s’est fait un nom avec des tirades enragées contre les femmes voilées et le « fascisme vert », contribuant ainsi à la loi raciste de Chirac en 2004 qui refoulait des écoles « républicaines » les jeunes femmes portant le foulard islamique. On voit mal en effet comment ce genre de personnage, attisant l’islamophobie, qui en France n’est que la face « laïque » du racisme anti-Maghrébins, pourrait prétendre contribuer à l’endiguement de la montée du fascisme et du Front national dans ce pays. Pourtant la protestation des Indigènes contre Fourest a suscité un tollé de Jean-Luc Mélenchon et, encore plus hystérique, de Charb. Dans le numéro spécial antimusulmans du 19 septembre de Charlie Hebdo, Charb traitait de « fascistes » les Indigènes et regrettait que le service d’ordre du PCF n’ait pas ressorti pour l’occasion les pratiques du passé, quand il tabassait sauvagement les trotskystes ou autres opposants à sa politique réformiste de trahison ! Charb écrivait : « L’organisation de la fête a, hélas, décidé d’évacuer Fourest pour des raisons de sécurité. Une trentaine de fachos arrive donc à saboter un débat dans une fête rassemblant des milliers de communistes… A une époque, les fachos, à la Fête de L’Huma, on les bouffait en merguez. Réveillons-nous, camarades ! » Nous ne pouvons que nous féliciter que le PCF, cette fois-ci, n’ait pas agi selon les fantasmes pogromistes de Charb. De traiter les « Indigènes de la république » de « fascistes » montre seulement à quel point ces laïcards républicains sont de fidèles relais de la campagne raciste contre les musulmans. Les Indigènes sont des libéraux petits-bourgeois, en bonne partie des intellectuels français d’origine algérienne, dont l’un des initiateurs les plus connus lors de leur lancement en 2005 était un sociologue respecté, Saïd Bouammama. Ils dénoncent avec un zèle louable le racisme de l’Etat français « postcolonial », mais au fond ils ont pour toute alternative que la république capitaliste française… devrait cesser d’être raciste. Dans leur texte fondateur « Appel des Indigènes de la République » (février 2005) ils demandaient ainsi à l’Etat français meurtrier de tant d’Algériens, de juifs et de tant d’autres de « promouvoir des mesures radicales de justice et d’égalité qui mettent un terme aux discriminations racistes dans l’accès au travail, au logement, à la culture et à la citoyenneté ». C’est propager des illusions dans la réformabilité du capitalisme français, qui s’est bâti tout spécialement sur le massacre et l’exploitation des Algériens pendant plus de 130 ans sous le colonialisme, suivis de 50 ans de sujétion néocoloniale de l’Algérie et de terreur et de discrimination racistes contre les Algériens et leurs enfants en France. La terreur raciste est inhérente au système capitaliste. Pour l’éradiquer, il faudra renverser tout ce système par une révolution ouvrière, en France et au-delà. Pour les Etats-Unis socialistes d’Europe ! 18 septembre 2012 – La récente diffusion sur Internet de l’Innocence des musulmans, un répugnant brûlot sur le prophète Mahomet, était une provocation raciste consciemment calculée pour susciter la colère des musulmans de par le monde. Des protestations ont éclaté partout, notamment dans le monde arabe mais aussi à Paris, où environ deux cents manifestants, pour la plupart des jeunes de banlieue inorganisés encadrés par quelques salafistes, ont cherché à manifester le 15 septembre près de l’ambassade américaine place de la Concorde, et près de l’Elysée où en général toutes les manifestations sont interdites. Les flics, prétextant que la manifestation n’avait pas été préalablement autorisée, se sont livrés à une véritable chasse à l’homme dans Paris, procédant à environ 150 interpellations soit les trois quarts des manifestants. Le nouveau ministre des flics social-démocrate, Manuel Valls, a déclaré qu’il n’allait pas en rester là et qu’il allait poursuivre les organisateurs supposés de la manifestation, qui sont passibles de six mois de prison et 7 500 euros d’amende. Cette attaque policière est une menace directe contre le droit de manifester et plus spécifiquement contre le mouvement ouvrier. En envoyant les flics contre les manifestants du 15 septembre, le nouveau gouvernement capitaliste de front populaire de Hollande/Valls se place en droite ligne de ses prédécesseurs sarkozystes – à moins que la hargne policière de Valls ne soit encore plus grotesque que celle de Brice Hortefeux et Claude Guéant. Valls est allé jusqu’à déclarer à l’AFP : « Je ne permettrai pas [...] que des slogans hostiles à des pays alliés, à nos valeurs, puissent se faire entendre dans nos rues. » Ce fanatique va-t-il profiter de cette affaire pour interdire non seulement les manifestations, mais même des slogans contre des crimes commis par l’impérialisme américain en Afghanistan, ou par l’Etat sioniste contre les Palestiniens, ou par Athènes et Bruxelles contre les travailleurs grecs ? Le président Hollande a pour commencer son quinquennat mis en exergue ses « valeurs » en rendant hommage à Jules Ferry, qu’on surnommait à l’époque Ferry-Tonkin pour son exaltation colonialiste ; Valls va-t-il au nom de ses « valeurs » interdire les manifestations contre les crimes commis par les troupes françaises en Libye ou en Côte d’Ivoire, ou contre les camps de rétention à Mayotte où meurent les bébés ? Tout le mouvement ouvrier, et bien au-delà, est menacé par les scandaleuses déclarations de cet individu. Gouvernement PS-Verts, bas les pattes devant le droit de manifester ! Abandon immédiat des poursuites judiciaires contre les participants et les organisateurs supposés de la manifestation pro-musulmane du 15 septembre ! Valls a même profité de l’occasion pour sortir un projet de loi « antiterroriste » datant pour l’essentiel de Sarkozy. Cette loi prolongerait pour trois ans les libertés extraordinaires de la police politique pour espionner les communications téléphoniques et sur Internet et pour poursuivre devant les tribunaux des délits d’opinion « djihadiste » exprimés sur la toile. Là où Claude Guéant disait qu’« on ne criminalise pas une intention » lors de l’affaire Merah, Valls, lui, veut criminaliser les voyages en Afghanistan ou au Pakistan. Nous avions mis en garde que le programme de Hollande, c’était de faire du sarkozysme sans le bling-bling, et, contrairement au PCF, au NPA et même à LO, nous avions appelé à ne pas voter pour le front populaire de Hollande. A bas les mesures racistes « antiterroristes » du gouvernement ! Elles ont pour seul but de renforcer l’appareil répressif visant la classe ouvrière. La police, ce sont les chiens de garde du capital. Comme l’écrivait le dirigeant bolchévique Lénine : « La société civilisée est scindée en classes hostiles et, qui plus est, irrémédiablement hostiles, dont l’armement “autonome” entraînerait une lutte armée entre elles. L’Etat se forme ; il se crée une force spéciale, des détachements spéciaux d’hommes armés, et chaque révolution, en détruisant l’appareil d’Etat, nous montre de la façon la plus évidente la lutte de classe toute nue, comment la classe dominante s’efforce de reconstituer les détachements spéciaux d’hommes armés qui la servaient, et comment la classe opprimée s’efforce de créer une nouvelle organisation de ce genre, capable de servir non les exploiteurs, mais les exploités. » C’est pourquoi l’Etat capitaliste ne peut pas être réformé pour servir les intérêts des travailleurs, interdire les licenciements, ou autres fantaisies de réformistes. Il faudra le détruire par une révolution ouvrière qui instaurera le pouvoir des conseils ouvriers, selon le modèle des soviets de la Révolution russe de 1917. L’offensive du gouvernement capitaliste contre les jeunes de banlieue décrétés « salafistes » se place en droite ligne des attaques de l’été contre les jeunes des cités d’Amiens et contre les Roms. Il cible spécialement des couches isolées et marginalisées, victimes d’un chômage astronomique, pour dresser les travailleurs les uns contre les autres, selon leur religion ou leur origine ethnique. Le but est à la fois d’affaiblir la classe ouvrière et de renforcer l’arsenal policier contre le mouvement ouvrier tout entier – car seul le mouvement ouvrier a la puissance sociale et l’intérêt historique pour en finir avec le système capitaliste. Les salafistes sont bien des réactionnaires obscurantistes anti-femmes. Notre organisation internationale a une longue tradition de lutte contre l’intégrisme islamique. Nous avions par exemple salué l’Armée rouge soviétique en 1979 quand elle était intervenue à la demande du gouvernement afghan pour stopper un soulèvement de mollahs moyenâgeux qui voulaient restaurer de force la burqa avec les armes et l’argent de la CIA et du régime wahhabite saoudien. Le voile symbolise dans toutes les religions l’oppression des femmes, qui elle-même prend sa source dans la propriété privée des moyens de production et dans la famille. Mais nous nous sommes toujours opposés à l’interdiction du voile par l’Etat bourgeois. En France c’est une mesure raciste contre les femmes et les jeunes musulmans ; nous avions mis en garde il y a deux ans que la loi sur la burqa allait être utilisée aussi contre les jeunes de banlieue portant une cagoule. Nous nous opposons aussi aux mesures légales contre le blasphème, qui sont régulièrement réclamées en France par l’Eglise catholique. Ce genre de loi représente un danger car l’Etat les utiliserait en premier lieu pour poursuivre et réprimer tous ceux qui s’opposent à la réaction religieuse. L’arriération religieuse dans les banlieues est le produit de l’oppression, du chômage et de la terreur raciste des flics, ainsi que du refus du mouvement ouvrier de défendre les jeunes contre la ségrégation raciste omniprésente : elle donne une illusoire consolation céleste pour la misère bien réelle sur terre. C’est pourquoi la lutte contre l’arriération religieuse est inséparable de la lutte pour éradiquer sa cause, l’oppression capitaliste. La bourgeoisie est bien consciente de l’atout que représente la religion pour détourner les opprimés d’une lutte ici même pour leur émancipation sociale ; d’ailleurs les impérialistes français viennent l’année dernière, sous Sarkozy, de jouer un rôle moteur avec les Etats-Unis et l’OTAN pour installer au pouvoir en Libye des réactionnaires islamistes, avec le soutien direct ou voilé de la gauche française. Troupes françaises, hors d’Afrique, d’Afghanistan, du Liban et d’Abou Dhabi ! Ne pas défendre ces jeunes, sous prétexte qu’ils étaient emmenés par des réactionnaires salafistes, ce serait donner carte blanche à l’Etat bourgeois pour ses transparentes manœuvres de division : la classe ouvrière doit prendre la défense de tous les opprimés en butte à la répression. Cela pose la nécessité d’un parti bolchévique multiethnique, multiracial, un parti ouvrier d’avant-garde sachant « réagir contre toute manifestation d’arbitraire et d’oppression, où qu’elle se produise, quelle que soit la classe ou la couche sociale qui ait à en souffrir, sachant généraliser tous ces faits pour en composer un tableau d’ensemble de la violence policière et de l’exploitation capitaliste, sachant profiter de la moindre occasion pour exposer devant tous ses convictions socialistes et ses revendications démocratiques, pour expliquer à tous et à chacun la portée historique de la lutte émancipatrice du prolétariat » (Lénine, Que faire ?). Défense du droit de manifester ! A bas la chasse aux sorcières raciste des flics contre les islamistes ! Le mouvement ouvrier doit défendre les jeunes de banlieue ! http://www.icl-fi.org/francais/lebol/202/chasse.html
Thank you, I am very proud of that film! The filmmaker Bob Byington is smart as shit and also really funny and one of my favorite writers. Megan's too. A lot of similarities in film and TV acting, but I guess a film moves more slowly, so you can try and make each moment a bit more of a work of art, whereas TV you're doing the same thing but just much faster. Also a TV role on a series that lasts is nifty because you get to keep creating the character with the writers over years, which is incredibly satisfying.
Get Fine Woodworking Magazine or visit Finewoodworking.com and start reading. Find some beginner project that you like, like a box is always a good starting point. Get a decent chisel and a block plane and learn to sharpen them. Sharpening is the most important skill to master, because it makes the rest of the steps flow like butter.
Two beautiful species, but I'd go 100% with walnut, as it is a cabinet wood, meaning it is dense and strong enough to withstand the stresses that are enacted upon furniture. Cedar is beautiful, with a high tensile strength, making it great for boats and guitars and siding/shake shingles, but it's also very soft, so your table and chairs would be fragile and easily scratched and gouged.
Christopher Pratt is one the most beautiful creations of Mother Nature's that I have countenanced in my lifetime. Whether the bear is lean from the winter or fattened by sweet summer berries and springtime salmon, it makes me no never mind in the love I bear for him. He's still a magnificent beast.
I still have a key to the bell tower at Busey Hall where my pal worked in the math library. If you climb into the belfry and face the direction of Rapha-El, walk until your forehead is illuminated on the level, then employ a church key atop the largest face of Carpathian Elm in sight, then you too can find my stash of Mahomet Kush. Mind the Fnord.
Interesting question. I think Ron would be up for trying most things in the right setting. Perhaps if he were stranded in the woods with Ron Dunn (Sam Elliott), he could be persuaded to check it out. I think Swanson would appreciate the efficacy of the bong delivery system.
Growing Facial Hair is not an activity. When did everyone suddenly have enough time on their hands to give a shit about growing facial hair? If you shave it, it goes away. If you don't shave it, it grows in length. Read a book. Sorry for yelling.
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